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Full text of "Light in the East : India, Malaysia, the Philippines"



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THE ... 



BY 



BISHOP J. M. ttJOBURN, D. D. 

Xnd 

BISHOP F. W. WARNE, D. a 



WITH A COMPLETE INDEX. 



CHICAGO* 

MISSIONARY CAMPAIGN LIBRARY, 

57 Washington Street* 




Copyright, 1900. 

BY 

THOMAS CRAVEN. 



II o.i 



CONTENTS. 



Chaptejr I— Thb Bast 7 

Chapter II — Darknkss Bef'ore; Dawn 12 

CHAPTI5R III — The IvIGHT 19 

Chapter IV— The Missionary Enterprise 23 

Chapter V — Eari,y Beginnings 33 

Chapter VI — Expansion of our B'iei.d 42 

Chapter VII— The Right Side of the Ship 46 

Chapter VIII— Pastor Teachers ,. . . 53 

Chapter IX— Our Converts. t 59 

Chapter X — Our Conve:rts (Continued) 64 

Chapter XI— Inquirers 70 

Chapter XII — Among the Vii,l ages 75 

Chapter XIII — Woman's Work 82 

Chapter XIV— Crown Making 88 

Chapter XV — Schooi^s and Education 94 

Chapter XVI — Our Indian Ministry 102 

Chapter XVII— Sunday Schooi^s. 107 

Chapter XVIII — Our Pubi<ishing Interests 113 

Chapter XIX— Our Foreign Mission 117 

Chapter XX — Bishop Parker 124 

Chapter XXI— Bishop Warne 125 

Chapter XXII — Sooboonagam Ammai, * 126 

Chapter XXIII— The Lee Chii^dren or the Darjeei^ing Dis- 
aster 129 

PART II. 

The Phii^ippines 1-64 



PREFACE. 

The writer has been urged to undertake his present task in the 
interests of the very remarkable movement which is taking place 
among the lower castes in North India. In some respects this is the 
most extraordinary movement which has yet been witnessed in the 
foreign field. Light is truly bursting forth in the East and no effort 
bhould be spared to place the facts of the case before the Christian 
public at home. The present situation is full of hope, but very much 
depends on the action of the Christians in America who are, in a 
measure, responsible for the work. They need to know what has 
been done, and what can be done, and what is the full measure of 
their responsibility inthe cnse. To help them to a knowledge of both 
their duty and responsibility, this little book is now placed before 
the public. 

It would be impossible to make more than casual mention of the 
work of other Missionary Societies than the one with which the writer 
chances to be connected. Space would not suihce to print even a 
descriptive list of them all. The most deserving may, perhaps, 
escape notice altogether. The writer does not for a moment forget 
that the most illustrious names in the list of Indian missionaries 
belong to other denominations than his own, J. M. T. 



PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION. 

The very fact that we go to press with a new edition of Light in 
THE East indicates the interest of the public in this book. This is 
very gratifying. Many persons have written of this small volume as 
"thrilling with interest." Absorbing as the rhain subject is which Bishop 
Thoburn presents; a large number of facts and many incidents concern- 
ing the people have been interwoven in the story he tells. This is, 
perhaps, one of the great attractions. If the reader will refer to the loth 
page our meaning will be the more clear. 

In this new volume many new features have been introduced. 

The Phillipine Islands are described in several chapters by Bishop 
Warne; the Ladies, both American and Indian, come in for more partic- 
ular attention; Illustrations have been introduced in larger number; 
Maps also; and what will be appreciated by all, a full index will help 
every reader in his search for particular subjects. 

At the last moment Bishop Warne presented us an article on the 
Darjeeling Disaster, which we are glad to introduce. T. C. 



We acknowledge our indebtedness to Mr. Foreman, F. R. G. S. 
for the many valuable facts pertaining to the Philippine Islands, 
contained in this work. Mr. Foreman is an authority upon that 
country and was consulted by the American Peace Commission- 
ers at Paris. Also our acknowledgements are herewith exten- 
ded to Rev. Thomas Craven, M. A., but for whose labor the 
presentation of so many interesting facts concerning the Philip- 
pines would have been impossible. We remember with pleas- 
ure the courtesy of the Northwestern Christian Advocate by 
which the Darjeeling disaster is presented in illustrated form 
and the fine picture of Bishop Wm. Taylor is given to the 
readers of Light in the East. 



CHAPTER L 

THE EAST 

From remote antiquity " The East" has been a term with a 
frequently shifting meaning. To the ancient Hebrews it some- 
times meant parts of Arabia, and at other periods it took in 
the great valley of the Euphrates and Tigris, and later still, 
Persia and the regions beyond. In Europe the usage has 
varied more or less, but for the most part, especially since the 
Crimean war, the whole Levantine region around the Eastern 
end of the Mediterranean has been popularly spoken of as The 
East, and the disposition to be made of Turkey is invariably 
called " The Eastern Question;" but in more recent years a 
wider and more remote *' East" has been coming more and 
more into view, until now the ancient title of a few districts in 
Western Asia is sometimes applied to the whole mighty con- 
tinent, within the confines of which two-thirds of the human 
race find their homes to-day. 

.To no part of the great Asiatic continent can the term " The 
East" be more properly applied than to India and Malaysia. 
India is a strictly oriental country in the popular sense of that 
term. Its natural scenery; its cities and towns; its ancient 
buildings and public works; the customs and habits of its 
people; its religious and political institutions, all remind us 
of that oriental world with which we have all been familiar 
from our childhood. The distant and little known region to 
which the name Malaysia is now beginning to be applied, 
belongs no less properly to the oriental world. The long strip 

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INDIA 

Scale of Mllei 
b 50 100 150 800 260 





THE EAST. 9 

of land known as the Malay Peninsula was the " Golden Cher- 
sonese" of Milton's day, and bears that title in his immortal 
Paradise Lost, while the beautiful islands lying beyond were 
in those days regarded as the confines of an unknown treasure 
land, where all things beautiful and costly with which the ori- 
ental world had been familiar from the earliest times, could 
be found in abundance. Those island regions literally stood 
at the "golden gates of day," and now seem, both by tradition 
and geographical position, entitled above all other parts of the 
world to belong to the region known as The East. • 

But in a better and more practical sense India holds a most 
important position in Asia. She has influenced all the nations 
around her. The mighty empire of China might as well have 
been shut in by an impassable wall since its first appearance on 
the stage of history, so far as its influence on the outer world 
is concerned. Until very recently the Chinaman had been 
absolutely without any influence whatever in the outside world. 
His face has seldom been seen, and his voice has rarely been 
heard in the councils of nations, nor has Japan until recently 
influenced the Asiatic world for either good or bad; while of 
Corea it may truly be said that she has merited her title of 
"The Hermit Nation." Thibet has received from India, but 
has yielded very little back in return for her gifts. The 
Western nations in the earliest times received valuable lessons 
in science from India, but until recently contributed little in 
return. India, on the other hand, gave a new religion to all 
Eastern Asia, and also penetrated the jungles of the South- 
eastern Islands. The ruins of ancient Hindu temples are 
found beneath the jungles of Java and other islands of the 
Malay Archipelago, showing that long centuries ago the 
people of India must have carried their religious institutions 
into those distant regions. The frozen passes of the Hima- 
layas could not keep out the early Buddhist missionaries from 
the great plateau of Central Asia, and with the exception of 
the wild tribes of the northwestern frontier, every nation that 



10 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

touched India became subject to her religious ideas, and 
adopted her religious institutions. Hence when we look at 
the vast Asiatic continent as The East of the modern world, 
we cannot but see that, for the present, at least, its most im- 
portant point is the great Indian Empire. It is emphatically 
The East of the present generation. Whether we view it 
religiously, politically, or from a commercial standpoint, the 
result is the same; it stands out pre-eminently as that part of 
the great Asiatic continent from which its uncounted millions 
have the most to hope or fear. 

What is this East? What is the India of which we speak, 
and what the unknown region called Malaysia beyond? The 
Empire of India is another Europe, so far as geographical 
extent and population are concerned. In round numbers it 
contains 1,500,000 square miles, with a population of 300,- 
000,000. Like Europe it is composed of many different 
peoples, speaking diverse languages. A stranger passing 
through Europe will not see greater differences in the appear- 
ance of the people, or hear greater diversities of language, 
than he would see and hear in passing thfough India. One 
hundred and three millions of the people speak the Hindu- 
stani tongue in its two branches, Urdu and Hindi; 40,000,000 
speak the Bengali language; while from ten to twenty millions 
speak the Marathi, Panjabi, Tamil and other tongues. With 
the exception of a few remote tribes, all these millions are 
civilized peoples, and were civilized a thousand years before 
the rudest form of civilization had penetrated the forests of 
Germany, France and Great Britain. Nearly all the arts of 
civilized Europe flourish in India; the people with rare excep- 
tions live in towns, villages and hamlets, and although their 
style of living is very primitive, yet the rudest among them 
are elevated very far indeed above the level of savage life. 
The ordinary dwelling of the villager is simply a small mud- 
walled house, with not more than two rooms, each about ten by 
twelve feet, and covered with a grass ihatch. In towns and 



THE EAST. II 

villages the houses are mostly built of brick or stone, and 
in some cases are very fine structures. Little or no furniture 
is found within, while cooking utensils and dishes are of the 
most primitive kind. 

An American arriving in India is surprised to discover that 
there are_no Budd hist s in that c ount ry. It has been so popular 
in recent years to exalt Buddhism and to speak of it as the 
"Light of Asia," that it is not strange that many Americans 
think India owes all her blessings to that ancient religion. 
Buddhism did originate in India, and at one time held sway 
over most of the empire, but for many centuries it has been un- 
known except in the traditions of the people. It was not driven 
out of the country by persecution, but seems to have been 
£(owly expelled by its better organized and persistent opponent, 
ancient Hinduism. The people are popularly supposed to be 
divided into two great classes — Hindus and Mohammedans — 
but as a matter of fact there are t hree great religious divis ions 
in India. A large number of the people, especially those called 
aborigines, are demon worshipers, and this term may truth- 
fully be applied to many who are called Mohammedans and 
Hindus. In fact, all manner of superstitious notions may be 
found among the people, and no term will fully describe any 
very large number of them. Both Hindus and Mohammedans 
have been noted for centuries for their intense attachment for 
their respective faiths, and conversions from one religion to 
the other were very rare before the English era. Strictly 
speaking it is absurd to speak of anyone born outside the Hindu 
community becoming converted to the Hindu faith, but in 
recent years the Brahmans have learned how to wink at inno- 
vations of various kinds, and large numbers of the aborigines 
and outcastes have been quietly permitted to assume the usages 
and forms of worship belonging to Hinduism, and to take their 
places in the general Hindu community. In this movement 
a good many nominal Mohammedans are likewise drawn into 
the Hindu fold. On the other hand,-large numbers of the lower 



12- LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

class Hindus have in 'recent years been incorporated into the 
Mohammedan community, but all these so-called converts hold 
their new faith very loosely, and may at times be seen altern- 
ately worshiping at the shrines of both religions. 

In the Malay Peninsula and in the islands beyond, the Mo- 
hammedans have gained a strong foothold, and their Malay 
converts are extremely bigoted in their attachment to the faith 
of Islam. Buddhism still holds its own in Burma and Siam, 
but has failed to maintain its position in the islands to the 
Southeast. The population of this distant region is not accu- 
rately known. A census of the island of Java, taken a few years 
ago, surprised the world by bringing to light the fact that over 
22,000,000 people live on that island. The other great islands 
of the Archipelago are much more sparsely populated. The 
Malay Peninsula also contains a very sparse population, but its 
coasts, as well as those of the adjacent islands, are being rapidly 
settled by colonists from China, and this region bids fair to be- 
come a very important part of the eastern world. Taking in the 
whole vast area, from the mountains which shut in the valley 
of the Indus to the great islands on which the Malay language 
is spoken, we have a vast population of not less than 325,000,- 
000 souls, making, at a moderate computation, o ne-fift h of the 
populati on of the enti re globe. 



CHAPTER II. 

DARKNESS BEFORE DAWN. 

The brightest morning has its beauty and its joy enhanced 
by the fact that it marks the end of long and gloomy hours of 
darkness. Night precedes day, and darkness reigns before light 
comes to fill the earth with joy and gladness. In like manner 
spiritual light ever comes to drive darkness from its throne, and, 
as Christ has been made known to nation after nation, there has 



DARKNESS BEFORE DAWN. 



13 



be en a co nstant re petition^ ofjhe s ame sce ne of dark ngs s flee ing 
away b efore the comin g li^ht, an d the ushering in of a new_ dayy 
f ull of ho pe^ and life, and blessing. 

'In India the night has indeed been a long one. Ages ago, 




HINDU DEVOTEE. 



when DaYidLwas widng the^psaJmod^of Israel, and Solomon 
ruling in the midst of the most polished court of the world, the 
ancient sages of India were singing the purest hymns which the 
votaries of Hinduism have ever known. In that far off age 



14 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

something like a religious dawn can be descried, but it soon 
vanishes from our view. As the years went by, darkness stead- 
ily settled down over the people: Brahmanism appeared upon 
the scene; caste sprang into existence, and became a mighty 
engine of social and religious oppression; idol worship spread 
widely; demon worship was borrowed from the aboriginal tribes, 
and thus the darkness spread, until at last the people of India 
became the victims of the most thoroughly organized, the mostz___ 
"^arefully constructed, and the most unrelenting and unyielding 
system of religious error ever known in human history. 

It is true that Buddhism intervened about five or six cen- 
turies before Christ, and for a time deserved the name of re- 
form, but, as mentioned in the last chapter, it has gone, and 
even if it had survived it would no doubt have degenerated, as 
it has in all other countries. Wherever known to-day this 
ancient religion is almost the exact reverse of its former self. 
Both Hinduism and Buddhism have their golden age in the re- 
mote past, and Christianity alone among known religious sys- 
tems has its golden age in the future. 

The Mohammedans invaded India at an early period, but 
the religion of Islam brought little or no light to the people of 
India. It is true that the Mohammedan believes in one God, 
and also acknowledges the Hebrew^ Scriptures and the four 
gospels of the Christians, as inspired, but his history for cen- 
turies has furnished a striking illustration of the truth that 
when the light which a person possesses has turned into dark- 
ness, that darkness becomes the blackest known to mortals. 
We may see illustrations of this truth in every part of our own 
Christian country. The worst m e n living are those who sin 
against the clearest light. In his everyday life the Moham- 



medan in India appears to possess very little advantage over 
his heathen neighbor. 

If the reader interposes to ask what is meant in these re- 
marks by the word "darkness,*' the reply can be given in two 
words — No Christ; but in every case these two words will be 



DARKNESS BEFORE DAWN. 1$ 

found to mean much more than appears at first sight. The 
people who have no knowledge of Christ will in every case be 
found without any personal knowledge of God. No living man 
or woman can be found who professes to know Jesus Christ who 
does not also profess to know God as his or her Heavenly Father. 
The knowledge of the one is the complement of the knowl- 
edge of the other. Jesus said, *'No man cometh unto the 
Father except by Me," and it follows as a corallary that every 
one who comes to Christ cometh to the Father also. 

As there is no personal knowledge of the Heavenly Father, 
so there is no prayer. So far as my personal observation has 
extended, I have never met or known any non-Christian people, 
who understood what prayer was, unless in the case of persons 
who had been in contact with Christians or Jews. Many Mo- 
hammedans repeat prayers, but for the most part are unable to 
understand the meaning of the Arabic words which they employ. 
Among the ordinary Hindus, I have never found any trace of 
any exercise like Christian prayer. Sacred words are some- 
times repeated, but the ordinary worship before an idol or a 
shrine consists merely in presenting an offering and performing 
certain acts of adoration, with perhaps the additional registra- 
tion, mentally or otherwise, of a vow. Prayer in the Christian 
sense of the word, that is, talking with God, is a distinctly 
Christian exercise. 

As there is no Christ, so there is no living hope in the heart; 
no apprehension of immortality, either as a future possibility 
or as a present gift. To the multitude the future is a blank; a 
subject which occasions no misgiving, and which seldom pro- 
vokes a moment's thought. With the multitude there is no 
heaven to aspire to, and the only hell which is dreaded is the 
fear of a long series of transmigrations, many of which may be 
of a painful character. People brought up in a country like 
the United States, within the sound of joyous Christian hymns, 
and with a thousand associations around them to remind them 
of the better worlds can hardly appreciate what a blaak it i»akes 



1 6 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

in the life of an individual, or in the ordinary intercourse of 
society, to blot out a recognition of heaven and immortality, 
not only from all literature but from all ordinary conversation, 
and from all ordinary forms of worship. The world grows 
dark indeed in the absence of this hope, which seems to perme- 
ate Christian society everywhere. 

While many intelligent persons in India have risen superior 
to the faith of the multitude in all coarse forms of idolatry, yet 
it may still be said of the mass of the people, that they are 
** joined to their idols,'* as perhaps few people in history have 
been joined. They worship almost all manner of objects; im- 
ages made of gold, silver, brass, wood, stone and mud, are seen 
in every direction; sacred animals, such as cows, elephants and 
monkeys ; sacred mountains and rivers ; sacred reptiles and birds ; 
sacred flowers and trees, together with an endless throng of 
fairies, ghosts and demons, all seem to meet the credulous 
Hindu at every turn, so that he seems to live and move and have 
his being in gross idolatry. And yet the average Hindu is 
quick to tell you that he does not worship idols at all. Multi- 
tudes of the more intelligent people are able to explain that they 
simply use these objects as symbols. Those of a more philo- 
sophical turn of mind are able to call attention to the necessity 
which all men instinctively feel for some intermediate object 
between man and God, and Christians sometimes cite the same 
fact as evidence of the felt need of a mediator between man and 
his Maker. These explanations, however, do not very mater- 
ially shed light upon the darkness in which the Hindu lives and 
moves. Idolatry at its very best is a blight and a curse to every 
nation which becomes its victim. 

Not the least striking of the evils which idolatry entails 
upon its followers, is the mental darkness which invariably 
accompanies it. Man is never found in_hi^&jiormal_ state unle ss 
llis^hjart is warmed^ and h is mind i llumina ted b y the spirit of 
the_Jixin^_God, and hence it follows as might be expected that 
every nation which has failed to accept Christ, and through 



DARKNESS BEFORE DAWN. 1 7 

Him the gift of God's Holy Spirit, has been kept in a state of 
mental as well as spiritual darkness. A glance at the world 
strikingly illustrates this statement. The Christian missionary, 
when he leaves home, turns his face toward one country after 
another in which Christ is not known or obeyed, and wherever 
he goes he finds the people living in a state of mental dark- 
ness. They do not cultivate science; they have no interest in 
literature, and without exception are found apparently unable 
to make an inch of progress in any good direction. Every non . 
Chri ^an count r y in^ the wo rld seems to have had its c'vili za» 
t ion petrified for age s, and to ,_have wholly lost the inventiv e 
facult y. There was a time when the people of China, Japan, 
and India, were able to perfect many new inventions, but for 
centuries upon centuries they seem to have lost that gift alto- 
gether. They invent nothing; they take no interest in public 
education; they cultivate no literature, an .eem to have settled 
down into a state of mental lethargy. These remarks hold true 
of every community in the world which up to the present hour 
is beyond the reach of active Christian influences, and applies 
to those Roman Catholic regions where Christ and his revealed 
word are rigidl}'- excluded from the people by so-called 
Christian authorities. In India, where missionaries have been 
at work for a century, and where Christian influences have long 
had free course among the people, a thousand evidences can be 
seen of the awakening of the people to a new life, and many 
darkened lives are becoming enlightened indeed, but in more 
remote regions, both in non-Christian and Roman Catholic 
countries, the truth is still illustrated, that those who are 
without a knowledge of the living Christ are plunged in men- 
tal darkness. In the Phillioines; in the interior of China, and 
the remote parts of India, the rule is found to work uniformly 
in the same way. 

To sum up in a few words; the condition of the people who 
are without Christ is a condition of spiritual darkness. They 
have no hope, and are without God in the world. As a simple 
2 



i8 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



matter of fact, it might be said that they are without hope both 
with reference to this world and the next. It is true that they 
do not seem to trouble themselves much about a future state in 
one way or another, but that is only another way of saying that 
they have no hope. Like travelers in a stormy night, they 
look up and see no star; they are going they know not whither. 
To the Christian in a Christian land the thought of living such 
a life would seem little short of exchanging joy for misery, 
light for darkness, and hope for despair. 




HINDU DEVOTEES. 



THE LIGHT. 19 



CHAPTER IIL 

THE LIGHT. 

It i s no t the will of God that anyjm man being should gr ope 
h is way th rough lifeJn_^ loom an d dark ness. For every indi- 
vidual and every family, for every tribe and every nation, God 
has provided in ample measure, full and free, the light of life, 
a light which illumines every pathway, and shines with brighter 
ray as the earthly pilgrim nears the valley of shadows at life's 
close. Ages ago God looked down on the moral chaos into 
which sin had plunged the world, and repeated with a deeper 
meaning the first mandate — ^'Let there be light," and forth- 
with our race became heir to the heavenly gift of a light before 
which every form of darkness must forever flee. 

What is this light? It is not the diffusion of intelligence; 
'it is not the quickening of mental faculties or a system of 
popular education ; it does not consist in a moral code or an 
elaborate creed, or a church, or an inspired book, or in advanced 
civilization, or a reign of newspapers and books. The light of 
the world is He of whom it is written, " He is the true light 
which lighteth every one that cometh into the world;" He who 
said of Himself, '*I am the light of the world." 

The best Christians are strangely slow to realize that their 
Master really lives among men, and is in the midst of his people 
forevermore. When about to ascend and take his seat upon the 
mediatorial throne of the universe, and seemingly in the very 
act of bidding his disciples farewell, his parting words were, 
" Lo I am with you always, even unto the end of the world." 
That he is present with his own, millions of living believers 



Q,) LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

can attest, and to each it is a personal presence. The Holy 
Spirit reveals Christ to believing hearts, and so reveals him 
that each disciple is enabled more or less distinctly to realize 
his immediate presence. As the waters of the sea encircling^ 
the globe have the power to mirror back the sun which shines) 
in the heavens above, and as the one sun, far removed from our^ 
little planet, presents a million suns to the vision of an aerial 
voyager floating above the surface of the sea, so in like manner , 
the Spirit of God reveals the Son of Righteousness in every 
pl ace where a beli eving heart is_found. It is just here that we 
find an evidence of Christianity which apologists of all ages 
have too much overlooked, and which seldom fails to close the 
lips of modern objectors to the truth of the story of the resur- 
rection. 

^I> Every true disciple of Jesus Christ bears the image of his^ 
Master. A true Christian is a person who has been made alive 
from a state of spiritual death, and has been brought forth into 
a new world of life and light. He is born from above, not only 
with the restored image of God, but in a striking degree he 
also bears the likeness of the Elder Brother of the heavenly 
family, Jesus Christ. We all cherish the hope that when Christ 
shall appear we shall be like him, but in a blessed sense it is 
our privilege to be like him now. While we remain here on 
earth we must continue to bear the lowly image in which our 
Master appeared among men, but his inner life becomes our 
inheritance. Of Him it was said, "In Him was life, and the 
life was the light of men." The two words, life and light, are 
here used interchangeably. When Christ was on earth he 
illuminated every darkened place to which he came, and his 
disciples likewise, who share his life, are gifted with the power 
to shed light around them wherever they go. They become 
children of light, and not only possess light within their own 
souls but are gifted with the power to shed light upon the path- 
way which they tread. They understand in a practical way 
what it is to have fellowship with the Son of God; they walk 



THE LIGHT. 21 

with him throughout their pilgrimage on earth, and realize the 
meaning of every word of their glad song: 

"I'm walking close by Jesus* side, 

So close, that I can hear 

The softest whisper of his love, 

In fellowship so dear; 
And feel his great almighty hand 
Protects me in this hostile land." 

This is walking in the light. The living Christ is a present 
friend, a mighty helper, an omnipotent Saviour. He becomes 
an inmate of every home, a comforter of all who sorrow, a 
helper of every one in need. Our world needs such a Saviour, 
not merely to bear trembling souls across the Jordan of death, 
but to guide, strengthen, and help them amid the storms and 
trials of life. 

The task of the missionary is a double one. He must not 
only go as a messenger of Jesus Christ, but he must take the 
Master's blessed presence with him. As the disciples carried 
the bread to the famished people, so the disciples of to-day 
must take the Bread of Life to famished and perishing nations. 
Truly the calling of the missionary is a high and holy calling, 
and one which there is reason to fear has not been sufficiently 
understood. 

The nations need this light of the world. They sit in dense 
darkness, and in the shadow of death. Even Christian nations 
as yet, have hardly emerged from the shadowy outlines of early 
dawn, and they will continue to walk in the midst of shadows 
as long as they fail to comprehend that Christ is the world's 
true light. From him all other forms of light will radiate; 
religion, social order, progress, liberty, education, in short, all 
that bears the name of light, will be fostered and spring into 
wonderful activity when Christ is recognized, honored, and 
obeyed by the sons of men. When we say that light is break- 
ing in the East, our meaning is, that Christ is becoming known 



22 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

among the thronging millions of that far-off world, that men 
.and women are becoming partakers of his life, that they are 
beginning to reproduce that life among their fellow men, and 
that a new era of hope and blessing has dawned upon the 
nations. 

In the following pages, it is proposed to give a brief outline 
of some of the tokens of the coming morn, which are now 
gladdening the hearts of many of our weary workers in India 
and Malaysia. The Eastern sky is certainly beginning to 
glow with an unwonted brightness, and many who have pon- 
dered over the rich promises of God's holy word, and have 
been watching and waiting for just such tokens as are now 
appearing, begin to take heart, and gird up their loins anew 
for one more effort to pull down Satan's strongholds, and pre- 
pare a way for the coming of Him to whom all the kingdoms 
of this world have been promised as an inheritance. 




THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE. 23 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE. 

In looking back over the history of the Christian Church, it 
has often been a wonder to many that Christians of all ages have 
been so very slow in accepting the task which their Saviour 
left to his people when he ascended to begin his mediatorial 
reign. Nothing could have been more explicit than his last 
command to his disciples to become his witnesses, not only to 
their own people, and their immediate neighbors, but to the 
uttermost parts of the earth. The mission of Christianity in the 
world during the present dispensation is to fulfil this command. 
Both before and after his death Jesus spoke in unmistakable 
terms concerning this stupendous task. No possible doubt can 
be entertained concerning it. It was not to be a mere form- 
ality, but was to be executed in the most thorough manner, so 
that every human being would hear the story. God had sent a\ 
Saviour into our world who was to be made known to all na-/ 
tions, and to be so proclaimed that every human being might) 
fly to him in time of need, and find such help as never could be 
drawn from any human source. From the very beginning, 
however, the disciples of Christ were slow to take up this task. 
They did their duty well enough in their own immediate vicin- 
ity, but never seemed to think of the regions beyond. A sharp 
and fierce persecution was required to drive them away from 
their own loved Jerusalem, and even later, when a miraculous 
lesson had instructed Peter as to God's willingness and ability 
to give Christ to all the nations, the lesson was hardly heeded. 
The work, however, began at last, when Barnabas and Saul 



^4 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

were sent forth from Antioch, and turned their faces toward the 
western world, thus preparing a way for making Europe a 
Christian continent. 

As time passed, the great commission of our Saviour was 
again speedily forgotten. The Christians of past ages seemed 
never to have wholly abandoned their zeal for the spread of 
their religion, but for many long centuries the idea of making 
our world a Christian world seems hardly to have been the sub- 
ject of a thought. The commission of our Saviour was wholly 
overlooked, until at last an era dawned when good men began 
deliberately to challenge the statement of the few who insisted 
that God called upon his people to evangelize all nations. 
After the great reformation movement of the sixteenth century, 
a few indications began to appear that the Spirit of God was 
moving upon the hearts of devout Christians, and stirring them 
up to a conviction of duty in this regard, but for the most part 
little progress was made until near the close of the last century, 
when this conviction began to take a definite shape, and God 
raised up William Carey to become the leader in England of a 
movement which was to make itself felt throughout the Protes- 
tant world, and inaugurate the great missionary movement of 
the present age. 

When Dr. Carey landed in India, he was not, strictly speak- 
ing, the first pioneer of the work which he came to inaugurate. 
Other good men, especially the Danish missionaries in South 
India, had worked at a few points, but nothing like a general 
movement had been started, and the success which had been 
achieved was only sufficient to make it clear that greater things 
might be done. The Roman Catholic missions which had been 
started, and for some time vigorously prosecuted, about two 
centuries before Carey's day, were in a state of inaction and 
decay. These missions had never really deserved the name of 
Christian missions. Many of them had been founded by zeal- 
ous and devoted men, but with scarce an exception the work 
had been of the most superficial character, and had been so 



THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE. 25 

closely allied with the political movements of the Portuguese 
and French rulers, that it had failed to represent Christianity in 
any proper sense to the people of India. The methods em- 
ployed by the early Jesuit missionaries were such as the best 




WILLIAM CAREY (BAPTIST ), FIRST ENGLISH MISSIONARY. 

Roman Catholic missionaries of the present day would promptly 
disown, and when we speak of the missionary movement, it is 
always necessary to remember that it properly belongs to the 
nineteenth century. 

When Dr, Carey and his brethren first attempted to enter 
India, they were confronted by an extraordinary state of affairs. 
The whole East was sealed against the message of Jesus 
Christ. All the Roman Catholic powers of Europe in those 
days, were intolerant to the last degree, and it was useless for 
any one to hope to gain access to any part of the country under 
their control. China was hermetically sealed against all 
foreign influences. Japan had at first received the Jesuit 
missionaries with extraordinary favor, and for a time it seemed 



26 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

as if Christianity had gained a permanent lodgment there; but 
the fatal policy of meddling in political affairs pursued the 
Jesuits to that distant country, as it has followed them every- 
where, and led in the end to a terrible massacre, and the ex- 
termination of the whole Christian community. The Dutch, 
who in those days were powerful in some parts of the East, 
were jealous of English influence, and in any case it had always- 
been their policy to look upon religious movements as insepara- 
ble from their own control. The British East India Com- 
pany at that time was all powerful in India proper, and from 
the first assumed an attitude of most determined hostility to- 
ward all Christian missionaries. Few things in the history of 
the English people are so extraordinary as this determined 
effort of the East India Company, supported for the most part 
by the home government, to prevent any Christian missionary 
from reaching the people of India. Truly the rulers of this:^^ 

(world had taken counsel together against the Lord and against 
his Annointed, saying that they would have none of his mes- 

Isengers within their dominions, and that they would wholly 
cast them out of the eastern world. As had happened, how- 
ever, a thousand times before, the world was once more to learn 
that He that sitteth in the heavens will ever laugh at such 
plotters, and have them in utter derision. The story is too 
long to be told here, but it may be said in a few words, that 
the missionaries displayed a patience, a perseverance, and an 
energy, worthy of all admiration, and finally, won a great vic- 
tory over all opposition. They gained access first to the little 
Danish settlement of Serampore, anJ under the fostering care 
of the enlightened king of Denmark, began the work which has 
extended aTTover Southern an^_Eastern Asia. 

The political opposition wKich the early missionaries en- 
countered, was as nothing to other difficulties which they had 
to meet. First of all, they were confronted by the gigantic 
system of caste for which India has always been famous. They 
found the people divided into hundreds, and even thousands, 



THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE. 27 

of distinct castes, and although living often side by side, sepa- 
rated by social gulfs so deep and wide that it seemed impossible 
to pass from one side to another. These castes never inter- 
marry, never eat or drink together, never smoke the same pipe, 
a'nd for the most part never sit down upon the same mat or 
carpet. They may live on friendly relations as neighbors, but 
there are certain separating lines which never can be crossed. 
A change of religion becomes an impossibility in the face of 
such a system as this. If a man, no matter how good and 
blameless he may be, and no matter how inoffensive his char- 
acter as a neighbor may be, becomes a Christian, his caste is at 
once destroyed, and he must from that time live apart from all 
his friends. In early days the penalties which caste was able 
to impose upon those who broke through its trammels, were 
much more severe than at present. If a man, for instance, were 
to become a Christian, he would be treated henceforth as if he 
had died. He must separate himself from his own family, and 
literally leave not only father and mother, but wife and 
children; he could no longer live in his own house, and his 
nearest friends would act toward him, and speak of him, as if 
he had died. Beyond the pale of his own family he became an 
object of utter contempt to the general public, and everywhere 
was shunned as if he had been smitten with leprosy. In recent 
years these penalties have been to some extent relaxed, or at 
least ignored, and yet up to the present hour the greatest hin- 
drance to the spread of Christianity in India is the rigid system 
of Hindu caste. The people of India have always been noted 
for their intense attachment to old faiths, and this peculiarity 
is now as marked on the part of the Mohammedans as among 
the Hindus. It is considered by the multitude discreditable to 
change one's religion, and most persons have a superstitious 
fear of doing so. In no other country in the world have the 
religious prejudices of the multitude become so deeply rooted 
as in India, and the early missionaries could hardly have pro- 
posed anything which would have seemed more absurd to the 



28 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

multitude, than that the people of India should cast away their 
.idols, give up their traditional religious ideas, and accept a 
faith which proclaimed the universal brotherhood of the human 
race. It is popular at the present day, even in the great cities 
of India, to talk much about the brotherhood of man, and the 
fatherhood of God, but with the multitude this kind of teaching 
is anything but popular. 

Another obstacle which was encountered was the dense 
ignorance of the masses. A century ago very few of even the 
most respectable people were able to read, and very few persons 
had ever encountered Europeans, except as hostile soldiers on 
the battlefield. Little was known about Christianity, or the 
Christian part of the world, and the little that was known had 
produced an unfavorable impression. India knew Europe only 
as represented by hostile fleets and armies sent out by the Por- 
tuguese, Dutch, English and P'rench governments, always ready 
to make war upon one another, or, if need be, upon the un- 
offending tribes and nations of the East. It must have been 
an almost hopeless task for the first missionaries, after master- 
ing the language, to sit down among the people and try to 
explain to them that the Christian religion had never been 
fairly represented among them,' and that Christ had really come 
to put an end to the very things which the Christianity of that 
day seemed to make most prominent. We need not wonder 
that their success at first was extremely slow, and that even 
after the great churches of England, one by one, had taken up 
this Work, a whole generation passed away before any notable 
headway was made in the conversion of the people. It is true 
that conversions occurred here and there, and that from the first 
every now and then some notable man would cast in his lot 
with the despised followers of the crucified Man of Nazareth, 
but in a country of such vast extent, and among a people 
speaking so many different languages, and with such imperfect 
means of communication as then existed, it is not strange that 
the early converts saw little and heard little of their brethren 




RUiNS OF THE RESIDENCY, l.UCKXOW - CENTER OF THE MUTINY OF 1857. 

ALSO CORNER OF THE CEMETERY IN WHICH MANY OF THE 

ENGLISH SLAIN ARE BURIED. 



29 



30 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

in Other places: nor is it strange that a general impression 
should have gone abroad among the Europeans in India that 
the missionaries had failed utterly in their attempts to win 
converts. 

A whole half century had passed away before any success 
was achieved which seemed to hold out promise of better times 
close at hand. It is true that in some places large numbers of 
converts had been gathered in, chiefly in times of famine, when 
impending death made the people willing to forget their fear 
of caste ostracism, and willing to accept help from any hands 
which might be stretched out toward them, but in all such cases 
the missionaries themselves could not but feel that something 
better than famine must be found to induce the people of India to 
accept the Christian religion, and hence all eyes were turned 
toward Burma, when, about the close of the first half century of 
missionary effort in India, an extraordinary work began to 
manifest itself among some wild tribes, called Karens. It 
would be foreign to the purpose for which these brief pages 
are written to attempt to give a full account of this work, but 
suffice it to say that a people were found who cared nothing 
for caste distinctions; who did not seem to be wedded to 
idolatry, and who had been for generations indulging a hope 
that help would come to them from some western quarter. 
Large numbers of these people were converted and received 
into the Christian Chufch, and their subsequent lives have 
proved the genuineness of their faith. Immediately missionaries 
in different parts of India began to look around them for 
similar tribes, and attention was qui*ckly drawn to various 
communities of aborigines— that is, of people who had probably 
found their way into India before the advent of Aryans, the 
people who brought with them the elements which afterward 
developed into the Hindu system, with its burdensome caste 
rules. New openings were found in various places, and new 
beginnings made by zealous men and women who were willing 
to go far from the great centers where European friends and 



EARLY BEGINNINGS. 3I 

European civilization made life more inviting to them, and 
thus the missionary work seemed about to enter upon a new 
phase. 

Just here, however, a great crisis intervened and changed 
the whole phase of public affairs in India. The mutiny of the 




THE REV. DR. BUTLER, PIONEER MISSIONARY OF THE METHODIST 
EPISCOPAL CHURCH TO INDIA. 

Indian sepoys in 1857 placed for a time the English tenure of 
India in great jeopardy, but finally ended in the utter over- 
throw of the attempted rebellion, and not only fastened the 
grip of England upon India more firmly than ever, but vir- 
tually proved the beginning of a new era in the history of the 
empire. Every vestige of opposition to missionary work was 
swept away by this political cyclone; old institutions were 
shaken; old notions were readily overturned, and the people of 
India everywhere were made to feel that unexpected even':3 



32 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



and unthought of changes were at hand. Just at this crisis 
our own mission was planted in India. Dr. Butler reached 
the country in 1856, and had only fairly settled himself with 
his family at Bareilly when the storm burst upon Rohilkhand, 
and the lonely pioneer was driven forth and only succeeded 
with great difficulty in escaping with his life. Two years 
elapsed before the conflict was fully ended, and it thus came 
to pass that our mission was not able, with even a partial 
equipment, to take up its great task until the latter part of the 
year 1859. 




EARLY BEGINNINGS. 



3.1 



CHAPTER V. 



EARLY BEGINNINGS. 



It isnowaHttlemore than forty-one years since the writer 
of these pages first reached the field which Dr. Butler had 
selected for the mission which the Methodist Episcopal Church 




REV. J. L. HUMPHREY, M. D. 



proposed to establish in India. The western part of Oudh ard 
the little province of Rohilkhand had been chosen, but the 
rest of Oudh and the mountain province of Kumaun were after- 
ward added to the field. On the map this territory looks small 
3 



3', LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

enough, but it contains a population of 17,000,000 souls, and 
in those days of small things the new missionaries were im- 
pressed with the fear that their field was too large, rather 
than with a misgiving that it was too small. Little did they 
dream of the changes which most of them were to live to 
witness. Six new missionaries had just arrived; three had 




ZAHUR UL HAQQ, FIRST NATIVE PRESIDING ELDER. 



preceded them by two or three years, and three Englishmen 
had joined the mission in India. One Hindustani preacher 
had also been received from the Presbyterian mission, or rather 
had been given by the brethren of that mission. The total 
number of members and probationers reported for that year 
was six. 

Even at that early day the missionaries on the ground were 
able to report a few conversions. Several of these belonged 
to respectable castes and families. The most noted of the 
numoer was a Mohammedan named Zahur ul Haqq, whose 




35 



:^6 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

attention had been arrested while listening to a sermon by Dr. 
J. L. Humphrey in the Bareilly bazaar. This young man gave 
promise of usefulness almost from the very first, and lived to 
become the first presiding elder of our church in India. 
Among the inquirers who had already come to the missionaries, 
were a number of low caste people belonging to a small colony 
which in earlier days had come from the extreme, northwest. 
They were known in the Moradabad district, where most of 
them lived, as Mazhabi Sikhs. This title implied that those 
bearing it were Sikhs by religious profession, but not by race. 
As a matter of fact, these people had belonged to a very low 
caste scattered widely throughout the Panjab, and generally 
known in that region by the name of Churas. The little col- 
ony with which our missionaries came in contact did not enjoy 
an enviable reputation among their neighbors. While many 
of the people were fairly honest and respectable, yet others 
were well known as professional thieves. Hardly a man 
among them was able to become a tenant to the petty village 
landlords who rented their lands in small plots to peasant cul- 
tivators, and hence the whole community was looked upon as 
below the line of village respectability. For several years the 
missionaries failed to appreciate the opening which God had 
thus providentially set before them, but the field was not 
wholly neglected. A few of the first inquirers who applied for 
baptism were received, and admitted to the infant Christian 
Church. 

It is no part of my task to give a detailed account of my 
doings in India, and I only refer to my own movements as 
they may furnish a thread for the story which I wish to tell. 
My first appointment was among the great Himalaya Moun- 
tains, at the beautiful little station of Naini Tal, where Dr. 
Butler had taken refuge during the mutiny, and where the first 
chapel in our mission was located. A picture of the humble 
building, formerly used as a sheep house, is given herewith, 
and five years later I was sent farther into the interior to open 



EARLY BEGINNINGS. 3.7 

a new mission in the province of Garhwal. The great valley 
of the Ganges and other rivers of Northern India, constitutes 
a level region resembling the American prairies, and is popu- 
larly spoken of throughout all Northern India as " The Plains." 
This great plain extends up to the very base of the mountains, 
and is densely populated. In some places, without reckoning 
any large towns or cities, the average population exceeds i,ooo 
to the square mile, while an average of 500 is not by any means 
considered remarkable. It was perhaps fortunate for me that my 
earlier years of missionary life were spent among those healthful 
mountains, and it was not until I had been nine years in the 
country that I received my first appointment on the plains. 
During those first nine years I had seen but little success, and 
yet seed had been sown which in later years has brought forth 
an abundant harvest. I had always felt somewhat cramped 
among the people who lived in the almost inaccessible hamlets 
planted along the rugged sides of the great mountains, and it 
was not only with cheerfulness, but with the utmost eagerness, 
that I accepted my first appointment among the people living 
on the plains. At the beginning of 1868, I removed from 
Garhwal to the city of Moradabad, at that time the center of 
the most interesting work in our mission. 

Soon after arriving in my new station, I found myself in 
charge of a large Anglo-vernacular school in the city, with branch 
schools in the suburbs, and a number of other schools scattered 
over a large district. From the very first, I felt strongly drawn 
to the villages, and whenever I could find respite from the 
pressing duties of the central station I hurried out into the 
country, and soon became acquainted with the few scattered 
Christians which we had in remote villages. It often — indeed, 
I might say always — seemed to me that we were making very 
slow progress. I was too short-sighted to see that we were 
doing a preparatory work which must be finished before greater 
things could be attempted. At the very time that it seemed 
to me that I was accomplishing little, two preachers who 



38 LIGHT IN THE EAST, 

were working under me were yet to become presiding elders, 
and two boys who at times gave us much anxiety, were already 
in training for the same responsible office. 1 have lived to 
see all four of these men develop into workmen who have thus 
far never needed to be ashamed. One of them, Abxaham„^l- 
Qmon, was an oriental Jew, almost as datk in complexion as 
the Hindustani people among whom he lived. At that time 
he spoke the language very indifferently, and gave little 
promise of the ability as a soul winner which he has displayed 
in later years. I have since then been permitted to ordain to 
the Christian ministry a dozen other boys and men who were 
then known to me as Christian converts, but who gave little or 
no promise in those days of the useful labors which they are now 
achieving. 

Later in the year 1868, I succeeded in making arrangements 
which enabled me to take long tours among the villages, where 
I became still better acquainted not only with our converts but 
with the various village communities, and I soon found myself 
studying many of the most important problems which have since 
engaged our serious attention. As I look back to those distant 
days, I can remember but too well that for the most part I felt 
much depressed with the outlook before us. Our converts were 
o poor, so ignorant, so wanting in personal influence, and of 
such low social standing, that it seemed a hopeless task to try 
to build up a permanent Christian church out of such material. 
I shall never forget one scene which I witnessed in the little 
village of Joa, about twenty miles from Moradabad. I had 
gone to the village to preach and hold a communion service, 
and a goodly number of the people from neighboring villages 
had come together. I had been oppressed during the day with 
the apparent want of interest among the people, and as the men 
came forward and knelt before me to receive the bread and 
wine, the thought came to me that such men could never fur- 
nish the solid material needed for the foundation of a great 
Christian organization. Some of them had been professional 



EARLY BEGINNINGS. 39 

thieves, and even then, after having become Christians, if a 
theft occurred in the neighborhood, most of them were sure to 
be arrested on suspicion, and kept under guard until the case 
had been investigated. I felt like yielding to utter discourage- 
ment- as I looked at them, but now when I think of the scene I 
am amazed at my own dulhiess of vision. It did not occur to' 
me for a moment that when our Saviour died upon the cross hC/ 
had a thief at his right hand, and another at his left, and thati 
if any men in the wide world had a rightful claim upon the* 
Saviour of sinners, the poor despised converts kneeling before 
me were the men. I have since lived to lay my hands upon two 
of those men and ordain them to the Christian ministry, and^ 
have seen the whole community win a character which has 
caused their neighbors to forget that they were ever anything 
else than Christians. 

In one of my tours during that year I went to a remote vil- 
lage named Bashta, where I had arranged to baptize two or 
three converts who had received the usual preparatory instruc- 
tion. In those days it was the universal custom to keep converts 
under training some little time before admitting them to the 
solemn rite of baptism. Some of us had begun to see that the 
ordinary rules would have to be relaxed if the people came to 
us in large numbers, but up to that time we had all felt ex- 
tremely reluctant to take so important a step without using 
every precaution to test the sincerity of the convert. It so hap- 
pened that the baptisms at Bashta took place under a mango 
tree near the town. The ceremony had been performed, and I 
had preached to the people who had come from the surrounding 
villages, and was about to dismiss the congregation, when to 
my amazement seven men stepped out of the crowd and said, 
*' Sahib, we wish to be Christians; please baptise us.*' I was 
for a moment so surprised that I hardly knew what to do. In 
those days the people were as much afraid of baptism as of 
cholera or leprosy, and I could hardly credit my ears when I 
heard the request. I however managed to say that I was glad 



40 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

to see them prepared to take such a step, and that I would leave 
a Christian brother with them for a month, and on my return 
would baptise them if he reported favorably. ■ Our good brother 
Zahur ul Haqq, who was much wiser than myself in such mat- 
ters, began to sing in order to make time, and when the rest took 
up the hymn, he came to me and said, "Sahib, if you don't bap- 
tise these men, here and now, you will never see them again. 
They think you are merely making a plausible excuse for get- 
ting rid of them, and that you do not trust them. They are 
greatly disappointed, and will go away feeling that you have 
rejected them, and they will never come back." I felt the 
truth of what he said, but still hesitated. It was one of the 
hardest tasks of my life to decide the question which was thus 
thrust upon me; but I felt that the least risk would be on the 
side of immediate action, and when the hymn was finished I 
said to them that I had concluded to take my brother's advice, 
and baptize them first, and teach them afterward. I accord- 
ingly asked them a few simple questions, and they knelt down 
on the hard ground under the mango tree, and received the 
baptism of water, which I explained to them was but a sign of 
the inward baptism of the Holy Spirit. This was to me an 
eventful hour, although I did not comprehend it at the time. 
I was still dull of vision, and could not understand that God 
was about to open a wide and effectual door through which we 
might enter into a scene of successful evangelization which 
.would severely task all our resources. 

I still remember how in those days I used to dream of some 
kind of a missionary pentecost which I hoped God would send 
upon his servants working in India, forgetting that without the 
antecedent conditions of the first pentecost at Jerusalem, it is 
vain to expect a similar manifestation in modern times. While 
losing sight of the very simple conditions on which God assures 
us that he will always work with his people, I was forever dream- 
ing of something new; some marvelous uprising of 'the people, 
or some still more marvelous out-pouring of blessings from the 



fCARLY BEGINNINGS. 



41 



opening windows of heaven. It is strange how we mortajs, 
with qui^feebl^e^^^^ forever prone to t urn away from the 

simple conditions of success wMch^^^^ and 

look for something else; something so high^at^we cannqt^^- 
tain to it, or so deep that we cannot fathom its depth, and thus 
we waste years in painfu l and^ almost fruitless_Jq]lj,_wh 
might be working c heerfullv and achieving constant succe ss. 
Had we pushed out vigorously into this village work, received 
the people who came to us without misgiving, and devoted our 
best strength to bringing them to Christ as a living Saviour, 
we might at once have entered upon a career of spiritual con- 
quest for which we were obliged to wait nearly a quarter of a 
century. 




RKV. W. R. CLANCEY, 
Allahabad, India, Secretary of the Special Fund for India. 



4^ LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EXPANSION OF OUR FIELD. 

While we were busy during our first decade laying the foun- 
dations of our work in India, great changes had been taking 
place throughout the empire. The European military forces 
had been permanently increased; railways had been built, con- 
necting all the great centers of the country ; mines had been 
opened; cotton and jute mills and other manufacturing estab- 
lishments had been built; a new commercial activity had de- 
veloped, and not only had the European and Eurasian communi- 
ties increased in the great cities, but scores of new settlements 
had sprung up along the great railway lines. The masses of 
the Indian people were beginning to stir abroad, and our con- 
verts were already beginning to pass beyond the limits of our 
little field. 

As the years passed, many of our missionaries had been 
slowly yielding to a conviction that God had a wider field and 
a greater work for us than had been at first contemplated. At 
first we only looked across the Ganges, but as time passed, it 
began to be felt that possibly we might be led to regions very 
far beyond our little corner of India. At last, in the year 1870, 
we crossed the Ganges and began to preach in Cawnpore, but 
felt in doubt about our further progress. Just then it so hap- 
pened that Bishop Taylor, at that time known as "California 
Taylor," who was still pursuing his work as an evangelist, 
arrived in India, and began to preach in Lucknow. God 
blessed his preaching and gave him souls for his hire. He re- 
mained four years in the country. Just here I might remark 



EXPANSION OF OUR FIELD. 43 

that of the many evangelists who have come to India very few 
have left any permanent traces of their work behind them. The 
same remark might have been made of Bishop Taylor, had he 
hurried through the country as nearly all others have done, but 
during his ^our years' stay he was able to consolidate his work 
in many places, and probably in all his career no part of his 
work has produced more permanent results than have been seen 
in India. He went from place to place, not making flying 
trips, but pausing some months, and in two instances as long 
as a year at a time, so as to consolidate his work. The result 
was, that at the end of four years, Methodist churches had been 
organized among the English-speaking people in most of the 
large cities of the Empire, and when Bishop Harris visited the 
country in 1874, he officially perfected the organization of the 
whole work, and gave it a recognized position in connection 
with the missionary society of the Church. 

For some years it did not seem very clear what value would 
be permanently attached to our English work in India. Many 
of our friends in America looked upon it with great misgiving, 
fearing that it would divert the attention of our missionaries 
from the greater work of giving the gospel to the Hindus and 
Mohammedans. Others thought that among so sparse a popu- 
lation no important churches could be built up, and no material 
help received for the prosecution of the general work. Time, 
however, soon began to teach its lessons, and it was found that 
wherever a foot-hold had been gained among the English- 
speaking people, a corresponding work was sure to manifest 
itself among the natives. It thus came to pass in due time that 
our missionaries were found preaching to the people, not only 
in the Hindustani language throughout North India, but in 
Bengali, Marathi, Gujrati, Tamil, Kanarese and Telugu, in 
other parts of the empire. As the years went by the work was 
extended into Burma, and later still, down the Southeastern 
coast of the Bay of Bengal to Singapore and Penang. It is 
needless to narrate the successive s.teps by which our work was 



44 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

extended throughout all this vast region. It often seemed 
unwise to .our best friends for us to plant our stations at so 
many distant points, but on the other hand it never seemed pos- 
sible for us to hold back from doors which God so plainly 
opened before us. To sum up the result in a few words, our 
one Annual Conference in North India was at first reinforced by 
the creation of a second Conference, taking in the rest of the 
empire; this in process of time was divided into two, and the 
two were again divided into four, so that we now have five 
Annual Conferences within the limits of India proper, and a 
Mission Conference, which includes our work in distant 
Malaysia. 

I know but too well that the average reader in America can 
form no idea of the immense territory over which our work has 
thus been extended. A few weeks ago I received a letter writ- 
ten by one of our presiding elders, and dated at the military 
station of Quetta, far to the west of the river Indus. About the 
same time I received another letter written by another presid- 
ing elder in the city of Singapore, far to the southeast of India, 
and only ninety miles from the Equator. The writers of these 
two letters are living about four thousand miles apart, and the 
base line which connects their stations is thus much longer 
than the telegraphic wire which connects New York with San 
Francisco. Our preachers are now witnessing for Christ in 
sixteen different languages. When Barnabas and Saul bade 
farewell to their friends in Antioch, and set out to begin the 
great missionary work of all ages, there were only 120,000,000 
people in the Roman Empire, but in this great field over which 
God has scattered our workers not less than 325,000,000 are 
living, making, as before remarked, one-fifth of the human race. 
In all Christian history no such field has ever been set before 
God's servants, and it is with no shadow of boasting, but rather 
with a profound sense of the unspeakable responsibility which 
God has placed upon us, that I add, that in all Christian his- 
tory seldom has any body of men and women ever undertaken 



EXPANSION OF OUR FIELD. -j "^ 

SO gigantic a task as that which we have on our hands in those 
distant ends of the earth at the present hour. We are preach- 
ing in sixteen different languages to-day, but the sixteen will 
be twenty in a very few years. We are organizing our work in 
the most thorough manner, and are tracing the outlines of a 
great spiritual empire which bids fair, before the close of an- 
other century, to exhibit to the world a spectacle of Christian 
triumph, and Christian progress, such as has not been witnessed 
since the days of the apostles. 

When I speak of the immense area of our mission, it is 
known of course that much of this is mere outline. Large 
provinces and districts, for instance, are as yet beyond our 
reach, and only very recently a party of our workers explored 
some remote districts, where they found six or seven million 
people among whom no one had yet preached Christ. Making 
all allowance, however, for those parts of the country in which 
we are doing nothing, and reckoning only those districts which 
we have actually.occupied, our field may still be credited with 
an immense area. At the very least it is ten times as large as 
the one we dreamed of trying to cultivate in North India thirty- 
five years ago, and as the years go by all the blank spaces of 
our ecclesiastical map will rapidly be filled in. This process is 
going on steadily. Our more intelligent preachers have caught 
the spirit- of the movement, and wherever they are placed they 
quickly begin to understand the work around them. If space 
permitted I could give many instances to illustrate this invari- 
able, and I might say inevitable, tendency. It is not probable, 
however, that our work will ever extend beyond its present 
boundary lines. The mountains shut us in from the rest of 
Asia in such a way that we seem to have our work cut out for 
us, and the only outlet we can dream of in the future will be 
found when the great railway lines, which can even now be fore- 
seen, are built to connect Western India with the Mediterranean 
ports, or, possibly we may be led to extend our work into Siam, 
or some of the districts adjoining Burma. 



^6 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE SHIP. 

Everyone is familiar with the story of the weary disciples 
who had toiled all night and taken nothing, and of their ama- 
zing success when they cast their net into the sea at the spot 
indicated by their Divine Master. 

Many and many a missionary has thought of the great lesson 
taught on that occasion, when watching through a weary night 
of toil, perhaps extending over years, and seeing very little 
success to his labors. Not every such worker is at fault, nor 
is it safe for anyone to assume that there need be no seasons of 
waiting. The lesson taught was not that we need never have 
to wait, but that we should always seek the Master's guidance 
when about to cast our net into unknown waters. 

For nearly thirty years we had been toiling in our Indian 
field, and although we had never been left without tokens of 
success, yet our success had always seemed far below what men 
and women enjoying our opportunities ought to expect. Year 
by year our converts increased, but at the end of a quarter of 
a century the rate of increase was only a little more than 500 
annually. All through these years converts had been coming 
to us from various castes, and from both the Hindu and Mo- 
hammedan camps, but the vast majority, perhaps nineteen- 
twentieths of the whole, had come from the lower castes, now 
widely known as '* the depressed classes." At times it seemed 
as if the rank and file of our future church would come from the 
ranks of those lowly people, but this prospect did not tend to 
inspire us with either hope or cheerfulness. We were not un- 



tHE RIGHT SIDE OF THE SHIP. 47 

willing to accept whatever God might send us, .but h uman wi s- 
dom is always extremely slow tq^ appreciate the val ue of the 
poor to an orgfanization of any kind , even though it be a Chris- 
tian church. Added to the poverty of the people, however, was 
the fact of their low social standing, and also their dense ignor- 
ance, not only of things pertaining to religion, but of every- 
thing else which is learned from books, or from contact with 
intelligent people. The missionaries who at times contemplated 
the apparently inevitable necessity of beginning their work 
among low caste and poor people, were perfectly willing to ac- 
cept what God sent them, but it must be confessed not many of 
them were desirous to have their work begin in that way. They 
would have much preferred to see it begin among the better 
educated and more respectable classes. God, however, ordered 
it otherwise, and in due time one and all became not only rec- 
onciled to the order of Providence, but began to see that the 
wisdom of God was much better than the foolishness of men. 
Had our first success been achieved among the Brahmans or other 
high-caste people, the converts would have found it extremely 
difficult to reconcile themselves to association with the outlying 
masses of low-caste people. Indeed, it may be accepted as 
certain that in such a case the high-caste Christians would have 
been unfit to takeup the work of evangelizing the despised lower 
castes, among whom they and their ancestors had always lived. 
It is very different, however, now, where the conditions are re- 
versed, and where nine-tenths of all the Christians of the present 
day have sprung from the depressed classes, and are able to 
assume a position of independence. Instead of a limited num-\ 
ber of highly respectable Christians graciously consenting to( 
open the door of admission to their less fortunate neighbors, 
God has ordered it that the depressed classes should have the 
honor of opening the door to their neighbors of greater respect- 
ability, according to the standard of this world. 

For nearly thirty years, as remarked above, our work had gone 
forward, making steady but not rapid progress. As things had 



4S LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

been going, our mission was regarded as a very successful one, and 
yet thoughtful men among us could not shut their eyes to the fact 
that, at the rate of progress which we were making, many hundred 
centuries would have to elapse before any considerable portion of 
India could be thoroughly evangelized. We were then nearing the 
close of the first generation of our Christian converts, and many 
of our preachers were beginning to grow old in the service. At 
no time did anything like discouragement find a place among us, 
and yet about this period it began to be noticed that there were 
deep searchings of heart among many of our people, and that 
while some were growing more hopeful, others were beginning to 
ask -with desperate earnestness what God would have us do. 
Early in the year 1888 it began to be noticed that our work was 
beginning to gravitate more steadily than ever in the direction 
of the depressed classes. During that year more converts were 
reported than ever before, while the number of inquirers 
increased to an extent that attracted the hopeful attention of all 
our missionaries. It was during this year that the General 
Conference, then in session in New York, completed the full 
equipment of our missionary work in India by providing a 
superintendent for the work, to reside in India, and to be pre- 
pared for meeting all emergencies that might arise. Without 
any reference to personal considerations, it ought to be recorded 
in the interest of historical accuracy, that when the action of the 
General Conference was reported in India, it produced a remark- 
able effect upon a large number of our missionaries, wholly 
apart from their personal relation to the superintendent chosen. 
It was felt that a missing link in our machinery had been sup- 
plied; that the equipment of our mission was now complete, and 
that we were prepared for advanced movements in a way which 
before had been impossible. There was no longer any liability 
to irregular movements, or irregular action of any kind, and we 
could look forward hopefully not only to steady progress, but to 
harmonious action. 

Be the case as it may, the close of the year 1888 marks the 
beginning of a new era in our work. When at the close of that 



THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE SHIP. 49 

year the Annual Conferences met, the reports were all of so 
prosperous a character as to attract immediate and carefui 
attention. At first it was feared that the large increase of low- 
caste converts might act as a hindrance to our further success 
among the higher castes, but careful inquiries showed that there 
was no foundation for this fear. It was found that while at best 
no very large number of high-caste Hindus had ever been 
baptized in a single year, yet the inflow of low-caste converts 
was not in any way working to the disadvantage of the more 
respectable classes. On the other hand, the largest number of 
high-caste converts was reported from those districts in which 
the largest number of low-caste converts had been received. The 
investigation which took place then proved not only satisfactory 
at the time, but seems to have settled the question permanently. 
In fact, for some years past I have ceased to hear it even men- 
tioned among our own people. After looking over the whole 
question carefully, a general resolution .was formed among our 
people to go ahead with the work, and push it with all possible 
vigor. 

In July, 1889, Dr. Parker and myself made a brief tour on the 
Western side of the upper Ganges, taking with us three Native 
preachers, with a view to finding out whether any door of 
access could be found in that region, especially among those to 
whom our own converts on the Eastern side of the river, were 
related. We had to move quickly, and at that season of the year 
could not make long tours among the villages, but were obliged 
to trust to the reports of our assistants. Our visit was brief, but 
intensely interesting. Reports were brought in of large numbers 
of persons who were not only interested in Christianity, but ready 
to forsake their idols and become followers of Jesus Christ. 
Inquirers were baptized at several points, and although in one 
town a large number of these converts speedily apostatized, and 
brought a measure of humiliation upon us, yet the ultimate 
results of the visit were more than satisfactory. We found, for 
instance, that large numbers of the people called Churas 
were inclined to become Christians, and on procuring a copy 
4 



5^ 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



of the latest census, we discovered that no less than 1,100,000 of 
these people lived between the upper Ganges and the Indus. 
Here was a field large enough to challenge the energies of a 
dozen missionary societies for the next fifty years, and yet we 
could do no more than arrange to make a very moderate 





MRS. E. W. PARKER. 



REV. E. W. PARKER, D. D., 
MISSIONARY BISHOP, SOUTHERN ASIA. 



beginning among them. We did so arrange, and in due time the 
plans then formed were carried into execution, so that up to the 
present time as an outgrowth of that visit, and of the plans con- 
nected with it, not less than 15,000 people have been brought 
into the Christian Church. 

Our Central Conference, which is a body representing all our 
missions in India, met in the city of Cawnpore early in August, 
1889. Here our situation was discussed at great length, and 
nearly all the delegates present became convinced that the time 
was at hand when God was about to set before us greater 
opportunities than we had before known. Plans were matured for 



THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE SHIP. 51 

prosecuting our work among the depressed classes with all pos- 
sible vigor, and as a result we soon heard of new openings in the 
Nerbudda Valley, far to the southeast from our former field. 
This again was followed by similar tidings from Central India, 
and at various points in the region between the Ganges and 
Jumna rivers, and also at one or two places in Bengal. A great 
door seemed indeed to be opening before us, but our means were 
extremely limited. Near the close of the year our publishing 
house in Calcutta became involved in serious financial difficulties, 
and it seemedabsolutely necessary that something should be done 
to save it from utter disaster. I tried to induce several parties 
to go to England or America to collect funds, but in vain. 
Every possible effort was made to avert the danger in some other 
way, and as a last resort an appeal was sent home to the General 
Missionary Committee, setting forth that unless help could be 
sent a disaster which would be felt for years, if not genera- 
tions, would certainly overtake us. The reply to our appeal 
came in due time, and left us without a ray of light or hope; in a 
few words, it was said that nothing could be done. I was sleep- 
ing soundly one night in the mission house at Shahjehanpore, 
when I was aroused by Dr. Hoskins who handed me a cablegram 
which had just been received, telling us that our request had not 
been granted. I need not say that during the rest of that night 
my eyes were hardly closed in sleep. When morning dawned I 
knew what was before me; I must go to America myself. The 
necessity seemed absolute, and I began at once to accept the in- 
evitable as cheerfully as I could. In all my life I have seldom 
taken a step more reluctantly than when I made the decision to 
step into the breach, and try to save our publishing house in Cal- 
cutta. I could not, however, get away until the following May, 
and in the meantime our new work was continuing to make head- 
way, and our interest in it, and responsibility for it, were 
constantly increasing. A few days before leaving Calcutta Mr. 
Warne, our presiding elder in that city, said to me that he felt a 
conviction that my real errand in America was not to relieve the 
publishing house, but to secure aid for the general work which 



52 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

was opening up before us. He thought that I might incidentally 
get relief for the press, but at the same time assured me that 
others were beginning to share his conviction that a better and 
greater errand awaited me, than I had at first contemplated. I 
cannot now give all the details of the story; suffice it to say that 
I hastened homeward as rapidly as I could, and reached New 
York on the first of July, 1890. Here letters and telegrams 
awaited me urging me to visit Northfield, where Mr. Moody was 
holding a convention of college students. I went there the next 
day, and the third day was invited to address the students and 
other friends who had assembled for the occasion. I told my 
story as simply as I could, and God helped me to set before them 
a picture of the condition of those depressed classes, and of the 
ease with which we could gain access to them if only provided 
with the means of instructing the converts after baptism. At 
the close of the address Mr. Moody sprang to his feet, checked 
the applause which had commenced, and said he wished to pro-' 
vide some help for that work. He would support a native! 
preacher himself, he said, and hoped that means would be found) 
for supporting many more. In a few minutes $3,000 had been; 
pledged, and before the sun went down a letter was on its way toi 
India telling our brethren there to put one hundred new men!^ 
into the field at once. I then began to understand very clearly! 
that God had another plan for me than that of finding relief for an 
imperiled publishing house, when he thrust me out of India, and/ 
guided my steps back to my native land. 

The events of the two years during which we had been led 
to engage vigorously in work among the depressed classes, 
quickly convinced all our missionaries that God had guided us to 
that part of the great sea of Indian humanity into which he 
would have us cast our nets. We had obeyed what we had re- 
garded as the indication of God's will, and the result was that 
we almost immediately found ourselves incumbered with a great 
multitude of converts. Our success became our greatest em- 
barassment; we could not withdraw from the work which had 
so strangely opened before us, and yet to human vision it seemed 



PASTOR-TEACHERS. 53 

impossible to meet the startling responsibilities which were thus 
thrust upon us. How we have struggled, and are still struggling, 
with these responsibilities, the following pages will in part at 
least make plain to the reader. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PASTOR-TEACHERS. 

It was easy enough to write the letter mentioned in the 
last chapter, directing that one hundred new preachers be 
put into the field without delay, but the reader no doubt has 
been wondering where so large a number of preachers could be 
found. Of trained men we had at that time very few, and every 
one of those we had was already engaged in work from which 
he could not be taken away. Here and there a Christian with 
more or less education, and engaged in some other kind of 
work, could be drafted into the service, but it was useless to 
try to enlist one hundred new workers from our own Christian 
community as it then was. The kind of workers which we 
needed could not be found, and we must either give up the 
struggle, or devise some new means of meeting the emergency. 
We felt that whatever happened we must not give up the 
struggle, and finally decided that the best thing possible was 
always the right thing to be done. We could not get workers 
with even a modern education; we could not find candidates 
with more than a few months, or, in some cases, a few weeks of 
experience, but we concluded that such men were better than 
none. We looked over every group of converts, and whenever 
we saw a man, especially a young man, who seemed to be gifted 
with leadership, even though he did not know a letter in the 
alphabet, we set him apart for the office and work of a pastor- 
teacher. 

The term pastor-teacher has recently come into common use 



54 LIGHT IN- THE EAST. 

among us, and defines a class of workers who will no doubt 
occupy a permanent place in our mission. It is applied to a 
man who does the double work of a pastor and teacher. He is 
expected to teach the children, even though he may not be able 
to gather them together in a formal school. Many of these 
children live with their parents, in villages apart from the 
larger Christian communities, and it is impossible to provide a 
school for every village where two or three Christian families 
are found. In such cases each little group is visited by the 
pastor-teacher, and even though the children may not receive 
a lesson more than three times a week, our theory is that any in- 
struction whatever, however slight it may be, is better than 
none. In other villages, where one or two dozen children can 
be brought together, a small mud-walled house, or perhaps an 
open veranda, is provided, and a regular school is taught at 
least two or three hours during the day. The people are so 
poor that many of the children are needed for work at a very 
early age, and hence are unable to be present at school for more 
than an hour or two at a time. We care little for the formal 
routine of a school, or rather we find it best to dispense with it, 
provided we can succeed in getting the children instructed 
under any possible circumstances. 

The religious duties of the pastor-teacher are at first very 
simple. He very possibly is not able to read. In such cases 
we direct him to seek instruction from the native superintend- 
ent of the circuit, or some one else, and in the meanwhile, 
having taught him to sing a hymn or two, and the exposition 
of a parable, or some other portion of the New Testament, we 
assign him the duty of gathering the people together and hold- 
ing religious services with them in the evening and on Sundays. 
Such men have to learn everything. Very few of them have 
any idea of prayer, until brought in contact with Christians, but 
with the extremely slender mental capital which they have in hand 
they are able to make a beginning, and like all other preachers 
of all grades and shades throughout the world, they accumulate 



PASTOR-TEACHERS. 55 

additional capital, both mental and spiritual, as they go for- 
ward with their work. The exposition of one simple parable 
will often suffice for such a man for several weeks, or even 
months; his hearers do not grow weary and complain of hearing 
the same sermon constantly repeated. In time, however, after 
learning to read, and becoming familiar with his New Testa- 
ment, the preacher is able to enlarge his sphere, and in some 
instances acquires this ability with marvelous rapidity. 

All these pastor-teachers are admitted to the district con- 
ferences, and ar.e expected to pass an annual examination, 
even though their course of study may at first extend little be- 
yond reading, writing, and the first catechism. Some of them 
fail utterly, and are dismissed after a sufficient trial ; others suc- 
ceed moderately well, while a few surprise us by their rapid 
progress, and by the development of unexpected mental ability 
as well as spiritual power. They prize the privilege very 
highly of standing up in the district conference and reporting 
their work, and afterward having their character approved by 
a formal vote. On one occasion when I asked a presiding 
elder to take the chair in my absence, the pastor-teachers pres- 
ent in a body refused to answer their names until I should return, 
as they felt that the dignity of their position was in some way 
challenged by the attempt to call their names in my absence. 
I have known these men when reporting their work to state 
that they had not been baptized more than six, nine, or perhaps 
twelve months, and that consequently they had not yet learned 
to read. One man confessed in doleful tones that after six 
months of persistent effort he had not yet been able to learn 
his alphabet. The spirit of this man seemed to be the very 
best, and he was encouraged to keep on, and to our surprise at 
the end of the next year he passed a good examination, and 
was able to read and write in two different characters. 

As fishers of men our pastor-teachers have thus far proved 
remarkably successful. They have come immediately from the 
midst of the people among whom we are working; they know 



56 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

their own neighbors and friends more thoroughly than strangers 
could possibly do; they know exactly what is passing in the 
mind of the community at large; are familiar with all the 
objections, doubts, and fears which the people cherish, and 
know exactly what motives can be appealed to with the best 
hope of success. They do not attempt much in the way of 
formal preaching, but with an instinctive wisdom which all the 
preachers of the world would do well to imitate, they do most 
of their preaching in the most informal manner, seated with 
one or two families under a tree, or within the seclusion of a 
little court-yard surrounded by mud-wall huts. In such places 
they sing, and pray, and talk ; often keeping up their intercourse 
with the people -until midnight. Like their Saviour, they do 
not miss an opportunity of preaching to an audience of even 
one person at a village well, and thus by the very informality 
of their procedure they disarm fear, escape criticism, and find 
an open way to the homes and hearts of their neighbors. 

The salaries of these simple workers vary more or less, 
according to the expensiveness of the towns or villages in 
which they may chance to live, but very rarely do any of them 
receive more than thjrtj dollars_a.j;ear. This statement never 
fails to excite the most incredulous surprise when made before 
an American audience. Even the poorest people in the 
United States find it hard to believe that any human beings are 
so poor, and habitually live in such simple style, that a family 
is able to subsist for a whole year upon an income of two 
dollars and a half a month. The fact, however, cannot be 
questioned, and so far from the people feeling that there is any 
particular hardship in it, most of them regard a pastor-teacher 
as a fortunate man. As a matter of fact he receives a trifle 
more than the majority of his neighbors. A thousand laboring 
men could be engaged to work by the year among the villages 
in any part of Northern India for two dollars a month, the 
workmen boarding themselves, and receiving no perquisites of 
any kind from their employer?. The pastpr-teacher comes 



> 



-7 



PASTOR-TEACHERS. 57 

usually from what might be called the laboring classes, and it 
is in every way desirable that he should not be abruptly eleva- 
ted above the common level of the people to whom he is to 
minister. 

The poverty of the masses in India, China, and throughout 
the whole non-Christian world, is something which the average 
American is never able to comprehend. In India a man who 
earns perhaps five or six cents a day is expected to support his 
family, to keep his own hut in repairs, and to pay a small land 
tax of about thirty cents a year for the site on which his house 
stands. His mode of life is extremely simple, and if able to 
provide two meals a day he will be considered fortunate. The 
average meal consists of coarse rice, or cakes made from un- 
bolted millet meal, to which curry, made from vegetable oil, 
red peppers, ginger, and a few other spices, is added, and 
perhaps also some weeds gathered in the fields and made to 
serve the purpose of boiled greens. Happy is the family which 
can afford to have two full meals like this every day. As a 
matter of fact many families are not able to afford more than 
one meal a day, while even the well-to-do classes seldom have 
three meals. 

The pastor-teacher has not to be at the expense of buying 
dishes for his table, or to provide furniture for his hut. The 
ordinary village house has no furniture of any kind, unless 
perhaps one or two little cots which are often turned up on end 
outside the door during the day. He has very few cooking 
utensils, and his expenditure is of the most slender kind. Of 
course, as the people become Christians they will desire better 
things, and especially as the pastor-teacher learns to read and 
acquires a taste for study, his wants will increase. He must 
buy books; he will soon become the owner of a small writing 
table, and a few rude pictures will adorn his walls. We 
encourage rather than discourage his ambition to make himself 
more comfortable ; it Js_th^iney itable fruit_^Jiis.^com^ a 
Christian, and hi^ attempts to better himself are so m anj Jndi-! 



58 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

cations that the whole community will begin to rise when the 
worship of idols is exchanged for the service of the living God 
Just here, it may be as well to say a word concerning the 
salaries of our preachers and teachers of various grades in 
India. Beginning at $30 the successful pastor-teacher will 
soon find new wants, and will need $40, and then $50 a year. 
By this time his children are attending school, and must have 
books, and also wear better clothing than they have been 
accustomed to in their heathen days. A year or two more, and 
the poor man's salary rises to $60 or $75. By this time he is 
regarded as a prosperous man, and occupies a very respectable 
position in the general community. A few years more pass, 
and if he has been doing well, making progress in study, and 
succeeding in his work as a pastor and teacher, he may be 
nearing the time when he may expect ordination, and will have 
advanced from his simple position in a remote village to 
become the superintendent of a large circuit, with perhaps 
half a dozen men under him, and will himself be living in a 
town with brick houses and paved streets. In such a case his 
salary will rise to about f 100. Beyond this point, not many 
advance, although a very few of our men are receiving as much 
as $200 and others $150. The advance is inevitable, and from 
every point of view should give us occasion for gratitude 
rather than regret. The mission of Christianity in the world 
is to lift the world up, and we cannot succeed in our general 
task without producing this result. Let us learn to be thankjful 
for _ it, rather than cherish misgivings lest our missionary work 
become too expensive. 



OUR CONVERTS. 5Q 



CHAPTER IX. 

OUR CONVERTS. 

The impetus given to our work in [S90 not only continued 
during the following year, but has been extending its influence 
and gaining momentum ever since. The work spread rapidly 
through the region west of the upper Ganges; penetrated sev- 
eral districts in Rajputana; entered the Panjab on the North- 
west, and began to make its influence felt in Bengal and the 
far south. In a single year over 19,000 baptisms were re- 
ported, and while for some years we have continued to receive 
thousands of converts yearly, we could have received more had 
we felt at liberty to baptize all who applied. We could not, 
simply because their instruction would have been neglected. 
We had not the teachers to instruct them, so we have turned 
our attention to the better instruction of those who have come 
to- us and also to develop among them a more thorough system 
of self support. In this way the best preparation possible will 
be made for the inevitable greater advance India is to witness. 
Speaking so about our converts, it is not strange that many ques- 
tions should be asked in reference to them: " Are they really 
converted or only nominally?" "What is their standard of 
morality ? " " To what extent do they support their pastors and 
schools?" "Do they show any signs of social progress?" — • 
these and other questions meet the Indian missionary wherever 
he goes among the American churches. 

With reference to conversion, it will be well before answer- 
ing the question to ask what is meant by the term. For a 
century past the word, conversion, has been very freely applied 
in evangelistic circles to that impartation of the Holy Spirit 



6o LIGHT IN THE EAST, 

which follows faith in Christ on the part of a penitent. With- 
out attempting an accurate definition of this change, suffice it 
to say that it includes the inipartation of a new Hfe, the. im- 
plajitin^qf a n the witness of adoption into.. the family 

oiJGpd^ and a radical change of mojal and rejJg^i.ous character. 
Many readers will be surprised to be told that the word is sel- 
dom used in the New Testament, and then not in the full sense 
in which it has been employed by modern Christians. As popu- 
larly used it is a modern term, and while we all may under- 
stand it well enough, it is necessary to define it when applied to 
converts from heathenism. The Holy Spirit, when consciously 
imparted to penitent believers, always produces such a change 
as above described, but it is not true with regard to our own 
converts, that many of them enter into any such experience 
previous to their baptism. Our custom is to baptise them as 
soon as we have reason to believe that they honestly aban- 
don their idolatry, and accept Jesus Christ as their Saviour. 
We were led to adopt this course by a stress of circum- 
stances which seemed to make it imperative, but in doing so we 
seem to have followed very closely the precedent laid down 
at the foundation of the Christian Church. The disciples who 
had assembled in the upper room at Jerusalem, were all filled 
with the Holy Spirit, and when Peter stood up to preach he 
told the multitude that all were alike entitled to the gift of the 
Holy Spirit who repented and believed, and forthwith when 
3,000 persons accepted the word which was thus proclaimed' to 
them, they were baptized. There is no evidence whatever that 
any one of the 3,000 had received the Spirit in the sense in 
which Peter had promised the gift, but that rather they were 
baptized with water **unto" the baptism of the Spirit. They 
had heard a distinct promise announced that on certain terms, 
one of which was the baptism of water, they would receive the 
Holy Spirit, and hence in a very few days we hear of all of 
them being filled with his heavenly presence. 

In India the custom in early days was uniform in all mis- 



OUR CONVERTS. 6l 

sions, to postpone baptism until the candidate gave satisfactory- 
evidence of having entered upon a new spiritual life. In some 
missions this change was more insisted on than in others, but 
probably no missionaries attached more importance to it than 
did our own. As time advanced, however, and our converts 
began to increase, we experienced very serious difficulties 
in pursuing this policy. It rarely happened that husband and 
wife could both be similarly prepared at the same time. As a 
rule the husband in India is in advance of his wife in all such 
matters, and it happened with painful frequency that after 
baptising the husband we would fail to win the wife altogether, 
and hostile relatives and crafty Brahmans would often succeed 
in enticing her away, and thus permanently break up the family. 
Aside from this, postponement is often, indeed, nearly always, 
attended with danger; it is always so easy for opponents to sug- 
gest that the candidate is not yet a Christian, and that his con- 
science may be relaxed without danger so long as the final step 
is not taken. In cases where baptism was administered with- 
out unnecessary delay, it was found that the rite, in nearly every 
case, proved a bulwark to protect the new convert; it separated 
him from his former caste associations as nothing else could 
possibly do, and not only removed many of his tempations to go 
back to Hinduism, but in a measure built up a wall behind him 
to block his way if he should be tempted to turn back. 

Our manner of baptising a convert is somewhat as follows: 
The people assembled are always interested in such a ceremony, 
iind the preacher takes pains to impress upon them the fact that 
the water used is not holy water; that it has no mysterious 
virtue of any kind, but that he uses it merely as a sign. He 
tells the hearers that as he will take the water and pour it upon 
the head of the candidate, so there is an unseen One standing 
beside him who will take the water of life, that is, the Holy 
Spirit, and pour it into the convert's heart, washing away his 
sin, making him feel that he is a child of God, and making him 
a new creature. He will address the candidate, and tell him 



62 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

that if he has not yet received the Holy Spirit he must remem- 
ber that God has given him a pledge that the Spirit will be 
•given; and that he must continue to look for his coming until 
he has the witness in himself that God has given him that of 
which the baptism of water is only a token. In this way the 
ceremony of baptism becomes a speaking symbol to those who 
witness it, and can hardly fail to be kept in mind by the con- 
vert as a pledge from God, assuring him that he will receive 
that of which the baptism by water is a type. 

It follows, of course, that where we baptise hundreds, and 
even thousands, of simple and uninstructed villagers, solely 
upon a profession of their repentance and faith, that vast num- 
bers of them are not what in popular phrase are called " con- 
verted" persons, but on the other hand, there is a practical 
advantage found even in this state of the case. The converts 
are divided sharply into two classes, corresponding to what 
would be called in an American church the converted and 
unconverted, but with this difference, that among the converts 
in India, those who have not received the witness of the Spirit 
are not only aware of the fact, but for the most part are seek- 
ing with gjreater or less earnestness for the gift; hence a 
revival meeting in India takes a somewhat peculiar shape. 
The burden of every sermon is the question asked by Paul at 
Ephesus: '* Have you received the Holy Spirit since you were 
baptized?" Sermon after sermon will deal with the probable 
causes of the absence of the Spirit from the hearts of hearers. 
It will be pointed out that there must be sin or unbelief, or 
neglect of duty, or want of consecration, or some form of re- 
bellion against God; possibly some concealed idolatry, or 
idolatrous connection that stands in the way. At the close of 
a revival sermon, instead of calling for awakened sinners to 
come forward for prayer, the preacher will almost invariably 
call upon those who have not yet received the Spirit to desig- 
nate themselves in some way as seekers, and the congregation 
will unite in prayer that all such seekers may receive the 



OUR CONVERTS; 6^ 

blessings promised to them. In many of our meetings I have 
witnessed scenes of great power in connection with such 
appeals. I have in mind now one notable occasion at a camp 
meeting in Chandausi, at which during a single day more than 
150 persons, all of whom had been baptised with water, pro- 
fessed to receive the clear witness of the Holy Spirit to their 
adoption into the family of God. 

As to general morality, our Christian community, although 
composed as yet of the veriest babes in Christ, babes both in 
knowledge and experience, will compare very favorably with 
any other Christian communities to be found among the natives 
of India. In some respects our Christians will compare very 
favorably with the average of their brethren and sisters in the 
United States. Some of them are weak, and the victims of 
many superstitious notions, but the main outlines of morality 
are well understood by them, and for the most part they lead 
respectable and, in a fair degree, worthy Christian lives. Now 
and then we hear of relics of idolatry, not only as tolerated, 
but even cherished by them, but this need not surprise us when 
we remember that it was also one of the chief troubles in the 
primitive times. When the Apostle John was an old man, and 
after he had spent years in teaching his converts, we find him 
writing to some of them, using the familiar and endearing 
phrase of a loving father: "Little children, keep yourselves 
from idols." Even at that early day, while enjoying all the 
advantages of association with one of the greatest Christians 
of all ages, we find that even intelligent Christians had to be 
put on their guard against a form of error which for centuries 
upon centuries has always been prone to make headway among 
oriental people. 

Very much, I might say almost everything, will depend 
upon our treatment of these converts during the next few years. 
If we neglect them they will fare badly enough, but if we teach 
them how to read God's word, if we provide them with proper 
instruction during the critical period of early discipleship, and 



64 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

if we keep leaders at the front who can not only point out a 
safe way, but direct their steps into it day by day, there is no 
reason to doubt that the converts who are now corning to us in 
such numbers, will yet adorn their profession by a consistent 
walk worthy of him whose name they bear. 



CHAPTER X. 

OUR CO^YEKTS—Coniinuecf. 

Several questions concerning our converts are so uniformly 
asked by our friends in America, that it may be as well to 
answer them here. The first refers to the 

STABILITY OF OUR CONVERTS. 

* 'Do they adhere to their new faith, or is there a tendency 
among them to return to heathenism?" With few exceptions 
they have thus far shown very little inclination to give up the 
Christian name and profession, and when such lapses have 
occurred, they have nearly always been traced to some mistake 
on the part of those administering baptism, or to gross neglect 
of the converts after baptism. In nearly every case it has been 
found that converts who have been baptised and left to them- 
selves in their remote homes have fared very badly, and nine- 
tenths of the defections reported have been traced to this cause. 
At the outset it frequently happens that persons attending the 
great fairs which are held all over the country, would hear 
Christian preaching and accept baptism on the spot, but when 
such persons returned to their homes and found themselves 
entirely alone, with no one to advise, comfort, or strengthen 
them, they almost invariably shrank from the trials which con- 
fronted them, and either renounced the Christian profession, 
or held it in abeyance. Taught by experience, we have in 
later years refrained from baptising such parties, and all our 



OUR CONVERTS. 65 

preachers are now directed not to baptise anyone unless at the 
same time provision can be made for his instruction. Our 
Saviour's directions on this point are very definite, and we 
have found that it is absolutely necessary to follow these 
instructions with all care and diligence. Upon the whole I am 
inclined to think that at least ninety per cent, of our converts 
have remained steadfast in their profession of the Christian 
faith. It need hardly be pointed out that this is a much larger 
proportion than the results of great revival movements in the 
United States or England ordinarily show. 

But while not lapsing to Hinduism, many of our converts 
show a disposition to return to some forbidden practices, such as 
tampering with idolatry, attending doubtful feasts, contracting 
marriages for their children with heathen parties, etc. This ten- 
dency, however, can usually be counteracted if care is bestowed 
upon the converts immediately after baptism. As remarked in 
the last chapter, they are like so many babes, and unless they are 
tenderly and carefully cared for they are sure to get out of the 
way. I was once leaving a church at a station among the 
mountains, just after witnessing the professed conversion of 
several persons, when a party of perplexed friends came up to me 
and asked* " Do you really believe that those persons have ex- 
perienced a change of heart, and do you believe that they will 
hold out and live new lives ? " A cold rain was falling, and 1 
replied by pointing to the wet grass under a dripping fir tree, 
and asked them if a new-born babe were tossed under the tree and 
left to itself, whether it would probably live and grow up to man- 
hood or die ? An incredulous laugh was the only reply, where- 
upon I observed that the persons referred to were tender babes, 
and that nearly everything depended upon the care bestowed 
upon them. All over the world Christian workers need to 
understand that it is an absolute duty, and almost an absolute, 
necessity, that careful nurture be given to every new disciple^/ 

The necessity for instruction may be further illustrated by a 
recent incident which occurred in connection with Miss Rowe's 
work among the villages. This tireless evangelist in one of h^r 

5 . ■ 



66 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

tours entered a village and proceeded to the quarter in which a 
few recent converts were living. Her attention was immediately 
arrested by a standard which had been erected in a conspicuous 
place, and she also noticed some blood on a stone near by. Her 
thorough knowledge of the people enabled her to understand that 
a sacrifice had just been offered to an idol, and on questioning 
the people they at once admitted the fact. Miss Rowe began 
to chide them in severe terras, when an old man, clasping his 
hands together and raising them to his bosom in a deprecating 
way, beg.n to explain, ''Miss Sahib what else could we do? We did 
not know of anything else, and were in great trouble. One of our 
children was very ill ; some timeago a man came among us,preached 
to us, sang and prayed with us, and we were greatly pleased. 
We liked his word, believed what he told us, and were baptized as 
Christians. The man said that some one would come and 
instruct us, but thus far no one has come and we are very ignor- 
ant; there are many things which Christians ought to do which 
we do not know. We did not know what Christians did in case 
of the sickness of a child, and hence when this child became 
dangerously ill we were in great distress and the women urged 
that something must be done or the little one would die. If we 
had known what Christians do at such times we would have 
done that, but fearing that the child would die, and not knowing 
anything else, we did get a fowl, and have killed it in sacrifice, 
but we did n ot know what else to_d p . " 

Long before the old man's story was finished. Miss Rowe 
began to feel that the condition of the people was pitiful enough, 
and that as a representative of our mission an explanation was 
called for from her, rather than from the poor converts. As she 
afterward related the story at a district conference, it made a 
profound impression on all present. The people will rarely fail 
to be true to their promises to give up idolatry, if they have a 
fair chance, for whatever else they may lack they are certainly 
honest in their purpose to become obedient followers of Jesus 
Christ. 



OUR CONVERTS. 67 

Another question which is frequently asked has to do with the 

SOCIAL STANDING OF THE CONVERTS. 

"Do they gain the respect of their high-caste neighbors after 
becoming Christians, or does the stain of low origin adhere to 
them through life?" In other words, does Christianity become 
simply the badge of a people of low caste? 

The answer to this question depends very largely upon the 
people themselves. As already remarked in connection with the 
former Mazhabi Sikhs, we have seen all trace of their early low 
standing removed, or at least forgotten. Many people who 
originated among these Sikhs now occupy very respectable and 
responsible positions. I have seen a man whose father was very 
low down in social rank, filling successfully the position of head 
master of a high school. Among our present workers is a man 
who began not many years ago as a pastor-teacher, and who by 
his scholarship and popular methods of teaching has won the 
title o{ pandit, which belongs properly only to persons of Brahman 
birth, and not only does he bear this title unchallenged, but he 
also enjoys the respect of all who know him. On the other 
hand, when we have to deal with persons who in any country 
would be found lacking in energy and self respect, we find them 
content to remain in the low position in which Christianity 
finds them, and it is not possible to elevate them by any artificial 
process. Their standing, like the standing of all other people 
in the world, must depend to some extent upon themselves. 

I once had my attention drawn to a very striking illus- 
tration of the possibility of a self-respecting and sensible man 
winning his way against all social odds. When the Rev. F. M. 
Wheeler was a missionary in Moradabad, about the year 1870 
his attention was drawn to a scavenger boy, who was driving a 
miserable old buffalo, attached to a conservancy cart. This boy 
was at the very bottom of the social ladder. Mr. Wheeler 
became interested in him, and offered to be at charges with him 
for his education. The offer was accepted, and for a time the 
boy disappeared among th^ hundreds of other school children in 



68 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

oar mission. When he again came into notice he had become a 
. preacher, and in the course of time he was entrusted with the 
care of a work among very low-caste people in a town of 8,000 
or 10,000 people. When he took up his work in this place he 
was subjected to every possible indignity; when he went into 
the market to buy, no one would either receive money from his 
hand or hand him the articles purchased. He was obliged to 
spread a cloth on the ground on which the various articles were 
placed, and also to lay the money on the ground, which was 
afterward taken up by the seller. No one would receive 
anything from his polluted hand. He paid no attention what- 
ever to these indignities, but quietly went on his way. When 
business called him to the office of the head of police in the town, 
he was obliged to stand at a distance, make his request, and 
receive his answer; but against this indignity he offered no protest. 
As time passed, however, the shop-keepers began to take the 
money from his hand, and to tell him that he need not spread a 
cloth on the ground for the articles purchased. The head man 
of the police also would allow him to approach in the usual way, 
and present his requests without any reserve; and as time passed 
he was not only asked to take a chair, but to have the chair placed 
on the right of the highest official of the town. Beyond this 
there was no social recognition which could have given him a 
more unchallenged place in the eyes of all the people. Another 
year passed, and when the imperial census was taken this man, 
who had formerly been employed as a scavenger, was placed in 
charge of the census operation and was thus entitled to enroll 
every high-caste man in the town, including all the members, 
male and female, of each family. He had certainly won his 
position, and won it fairly. Space will only permit me to answer 
one other question which the supporters of our work in America 
seldom fail to ask. It refers to the 

SUPPORT OF OUR PASTORS. 
*' Do our converts give of their substance to the support of 
the gospel, and of the other institutions of the church? Js there 



OUR CONVERTS. 69 

any reasonable prospect of our work ever becoming self-support- 
ing?" After what has been said concerning the extreme poverty 
of the people, it will hardly be expected that an affirmative reply 
can at once be given to either of these questions. Our people 
are not only poor, but are so scattered that as yet it has hardly 
ever been possible to get any large number of them to combine in 
one place for the support of any one pastor. As an illustration 
of their poverty, I may mention that although public collections 
are regularly taken after the manner of nearly all Christian 
churches in other lands, yet the larger number contribute only 
cowries. The cowrie is a small shell found on the sea shore, and 
used in many parts of India as currency. When at par, sixty-four 
of these cowries are equal to a pice, the ordinary '^copper" of 
the country, and this in turn is equal to about three-fourths of an 
American cent. The value of the cowrie therefore, is one- 
sixty-fourth of three-fourths of a cent, and it is the poverty, rather 
than the want of liberality of the people, which obliges many of 
them to throw in one or two of these little shells at a public col- 
lection. Sometimes a preacher will accumulate a bushel or two 
of cowries, when they are sent to the bazaar and sold for silver 
coin. The reader can see at a glance that it is hopeless to expect 
people who are only able to contribute in this way, to do much 
toward building up self-supporting churches in the ordinary sense 
of the word. A few give small offerings of grain, eggs, chickens, 
pigs, and a very few are able to give silver coins. Notwithstand- 
ing these statements, I am by no means hopeless of seeing the 
people become ultimately self-supporting. There are such mul- 
titudes of them, and they live so compactly in adjacent villages, 
that when we begin to find whole villages becoming Christian, it 
will be possible to put one man in charge of a thousand families, 
and although these families will each contribute very meager 
sums, yet when all are put together, it will suffice to support a 
fairly respectable man as pastor.* We have also some reason to 
hope that when our schools become developed, material help will 
be given by the Indian Government. A general policy of aiding 
education has been adopted, and the only reason that our poorest 



70 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

people do not receive aid from that source is found in the fact 
.that their schools are not yet sufficiently advanced to entitle them 
to a grant under existing rules. 

* After the above was written my attention was called to a very interesting 
account of a new work in the Mazafarnagar district, in North India; published 
in the "Indian Witness." Some 400 Chamars — leather dressers — had been 
baptized, and had subscribed forty rupees toward the support of a pastor. The 
converts, living in four different villages, had also united in a proposal to give 
four rupees a month for a joint pastor, if one could be sent to them. 



CHAPTER XL 

INQUIRERS. 

Thirty years ago the term " inquirer" Was applied to per- 
sons who were more or less interested in Christianity, and who 
visited missionaries with more or less frequency for the purpose 
of getting a better knowledge of the Christian religion. Most 
of such persons made very slow and timid advances toward a 
decision of the momentous question of becoming Christians, and 
very many, like Nicodemus of old, were not willing to have it 
known that they visited the missionaries at all. Of later years, 
however, a great change has come over men of this character. 
Not only are there more of them, but- they are less timid, and 
much more free to express their views on religious subjects. 

In our own mission the conditions of the last few years 
have completely changed the meaning of the term inquirer. As 
the number of such persons increased, and as they became more 
and more decided in their purpose to become Christians, the 
timid few who were still disposed to seek interviews in a 
stealthy manner with the missionary, attracted less and less 
attention, until they are now hardly classed with inquirers at 
all. On the other hand, an inquirer of the present day, within 
the bounds of our own mission at least, is one who is an appli- 



INQUIRERS. 71 

cant for baptism. We hardly use the term in any other sense, 
and so great is the pressure upon all our missionaries and 
Indian workers that few of them can find time for being inter- 
viewed by timid creatures, no matter how honest they may be, 
who are not willing to avow an honest purpose to abandon error 
and become followers of Jesus Christ. 

Of inquirers who come up to this description we have now 
a very great multitude. For many years past, it has been utterly 
impossible for our workers to respond to one-half the calls 
which reach them, from families or communities who openly 
avow their desire to abandon idolatry and to become Christians. 
It is true that all of these cannot be called decided, and some 
of them may be expected to turn out more or less insincere, 
but, after making every fair deduction which the case demands, 
the startling fact remains that many thousands of the people 
among whom we are working assure us, not secretly but in the 
most open manner, that they wish to become Christians, and 
entreat us to send them preachers or teachers to show them how. 
For three years past there has probably not been a single day 
in which at least 20,000 persons have not been confronting us 
with requests to send them teachers to show them how to em- 
brace the Christian religion. Of course, this means very little 
on the part of many, who cannot be expected to understand 
what demands the Christian faith will make upon them; what 
changes in their lives will be necessary; what sacrifices they 
must make, or, perhaps, what persecutions they tnust endure; 
but on the other hand very many of them understand perfectly 
well that it will cost them much to forsake their old religion 
and embrace the new. To thousands of them it means a certain 
measure of social ostracism, with more or less open manifesta- 
tions of hostility on the part of their former neighbors, and, in 
some cases, sharp and bitter persecution. 

In addition to these thousands who avow their purpose to 
become Christians, there are other thousands — how many I 
cannot say, but probably more than the most sanguine among 



72 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

US suppose — who are more or less interested in the subject of 
Christianity, and are not only willing, but anxious to hear how 
it will affect their lives for them to embrace it. An impression 
has gone abroad among the depressed classes of India, through- 
out the whole length and breadth of the empire, that a time is 
at hand when Christianity will open to them a new door of hope. 
Thousands, and even hundreds of thousands, among them are 
said to be inspired with the conviction that in some way, they 
know not how, their long night of depression is to give way 
to a good time coming, when they are to become an educated 
people, and enter upon a new and brighter career. Vast numbers 
of these people who are interested to this extent, are more than 
willing to receive any Christian preacher sent among them, 
although up to the present not fully decided to take a decisive 
step in the direction of becoming Christians. It is needless 
for any new missionary while looking about for a favorable 
station in which to begin his work, to select a place where no 
such inquirers will be found. If he uses any diligence what- 
ever in his inquiries, he will not be long in discovering places 
where thousands upon thousands of such people are within sight 
and hearing; indeed there is hardly any limit to the wide field 
which the providence of God has thus spread out before the 
Christian missionaries of India. 

Space will only permit me to mention one of many instances 
which illustrate the truth of what has just been said. Early in 
the present year a young man belonging to the theological 
school at Bareilly, came to me to say that he had just returned 
from a visit to his wife's relations, who lived in the Northwest, 
not far from the base of the Himalaya mountains. He said he 
had been astonished when going among his relatives to find that 
they were interested, and more than interested, in Christ- 
anity, and that large numbers of them avowed their 
willingness to become Christians, and begged him to stay 
among them and teach them the way. He made inquiries 
which convinced him that a long strip of country, extending 



INQUIRERS. 73 

eastward from the point where he had been visiting, was 
inhabited by the same class of people, and, as reported to him, 
all these were equally accessible, and so far as could be seen, 
there was nothing in the way of the conversion of the people 
€71 masse, living in a strip of country extending thirty or forty 
miles eastward. Making all due allowance for possible exag- 
geration in this case, enough of solid fact will remain to show 
that our work in India has emerged from its early day of small 
things, and entered upon a new phase altogether. 

About the middle of the nineteenth century a missionary 
census was taken of most of the foreign stations of the leading 
societies of the world. It was then found that over fifty mis- 
sionaries were employed among 250,000 inhabitants of the 
South Sea Islands, and the success of these laborers among 
those remote islanders was regarded as among the most phe- 
nomenal features of recent missionary history.. We ought to 
be thankful for what was achieved in those remote islands, but 
when we turn from such a work as that, and see one little dis- 
trict pointed out to us which contains four times as many in- 
habitants as all those islands put together, or when we turn to 
our own mission and see the 110,000 converts who have been 
gathered out of the surroundingheathenism, all needing and all 
eager for instruction, while only one missionary can be afforded 
on the average to over half a million of the people, we perceive 
how great a revolution in missionary methods an J missionary 
ideas has taken place during the present generation. If, for 
instance. ;^e take our own mission in India and Malaysia, we 
find a Christian community consisting at the present time of 
more than 100,000 converts of all ages, with 20,000 applicants 
for baptism waiting at our gates, and at least 100,000 more 
who could be found within a single week and added to the army 
of inquirers, if we were only able to send them messengers of 
God with the glad tidings of salvation. 

It may truly be said that since the day that Dr. Carey 
landed in Calcutta, and the era of modern missions first opened 



74 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

Upon the world, no such spectacle as this has ever been wit- 
nessed. Never have such wide doors stood open before a Chris- 
tian church; never have missionaries enjoyed such opportuni- 
ties as these; never have providential tokens seemed so uni- 
formly to assure Christian workers of success; and never has 
God s blessing been more copiously bestowed upon those who 
toil, than in the case of our own mission in India at the present 
day. Boasting is utterly excluded in a case of this kind. In 
the presence of God; in the presence of a thousand tokens of 
His favor; in the presence of a constantly increasing multitude 
of converts; in the presence of a great host of inquirers, the 
spirit of boasting utterly dies out of the heart, while its place 
is taken by a profound feeling of awe, as if one felt conscious 
of standing in the immediate presence of God. That our people 
in the United States may, in some faint degree at least, realize 
the meaning ofwhat is now transpiring in that far-off Eastern 
world, is the sole object which prompts the writing of these 
lines. • 



AMONG THE VILLAGES. 75 



CHAPTER XII. 

AMONG THE VILLAGES. 

The vast majority of the people of India live in small mud- 
walled villages, and never in detached houses as is customary 
in the country districts of Europe and America. 'Life in these 
villages is simplicity itself. As before remarked, the little 
huts are encumbered with no furniture, and everything is of the 
most primitive character. It was once said by the late Ram 
Chunder Bose, that, in the English sense of the word, there is 
no term in any Indian language which corresponds to our word 
home. In an important sense this remark was very just, and 
yet the poorest of the poor villagers in India prize their little 
huts very highly. The old English tradition that every man's 
house is his castle, is found rooted in the instincts of the people 
of India. Every villager is ready to defend the sacred privacy 
of his house, and with rare exceptions, all are much attached 
to such wretched homes as they possess. 

The reader in the United States will find it very hard 
to picture to himself the actual state of affairs in a little 
hamlet in India. The missionary on his first arrival is very 
apt to form plans for erecting a place of worship, or a school- 
house, on some vacant ground, and if he has charge of a native 
preacher, will very probably proceed to build a house for him, 
not in the village proper, but on a choice site near at hand. 
He will build a house in such a way that its front door opens 
on the public road, and will be utterly astonished, and perhaps 
vexed, when he finds that his Native helper is not only unwil- 
ling to live in the house, because of its separation from the 



j6 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

village, but that he particularly objects to it because of the 
exposure of its front door. Every native of India, no matter 
how lowly, values privacy, and is extremely anxious to conceal 
his home from public observation. He would not only have 
the doorway in the rear, but would have it surrounded by a 
wall, so that none could by any possible chance, get a peep 
inside the door. 

Among such a people it is extremely difficult to inaugurate 
our American custom of erecting a place of worship on the side 
of a village street, or of a public road, and then induce all the 
people, male and female, to walk boldly to the place at a stated 
hour on Sunday, as Christians are accustomed to do in the 
United States. It is not customary for husbands to walk with 
their wives, even in villages, and would be utterly repugnant 
to all ideas of propriety in the large cities; nor do wives and 
daughters of respectable men appear in public at all, and hence 
when they become Christians it is exacting more from them 
than an ordinary American can understand, to require them to 
attend a public place of worship every week. The result is, 
that we find it very difficult at first to induce our Christians to 
come together for worship; it is contrary to all their religious 
traditions and social notions. The Hindus are never accus- 
tomed to resorj: to their temples in large companies, but each 
person goes at such time as suits his convenience. They have 
nothing corresponding to our religious assemblies, although 
they do hold immense gatherings on certain sacred occasions, 
but at these fairs there is no concert of action; each one goes 
to his particular shrine at such time as suits himself. 

It thus becomes extremely difficult for us to indoctrinate our 
converts, and accustom them to the various Christian usages 
which prevail in all Christian countries. We cannot often get 
large numbers of people together, and the Sunday services as 
yet has not been made to serve the same purposethat.it does 
in Christian lands. It is necessary for us to go to the people 
at their homes, or at best to gather them together in small 



Among the villages. 77 

groups near their homes, and we are also obliged to resort to 
the old-time custom of itinerating, that is, of sending preachers 
through the country who go from village to village, teaching 
and preaching to the people, perhaps a day or two at a time in 
each place. One of the weakest points in our whole work at 
the present time, is the want of suitable evangelists who can de 
a work of this kind among our baptised Christians. They are 
all eager to be taught, but it will require a great host of teach- 
ers and preachers to meet their wants. Our Christians will 
learn this kind of work, as they do nearly everything else, by 
seeing it performed. As our trained evangelists increase, each 
one will become a recruiting agent in enlisting others for the 
work, and thus it is hoped that in time we will get a supply of 
workers, not only for this needy department, but for every other 
requirement of our field. 

One of our most successful leaders in the evangelistic work 
was Miss Rowe, a lady known to many in America, where 
she spent six months as a visitor in 1888, but born and brought 
up in North India. I cannot better illustrate the character of 
our work, than by quoting a letter written by herself and pub- 
lished in the ''Indian Witness." 

"WORK IN THE VILLAGES." 

"The day after our Annual Conference we began camp life 
and up to date have been able. to visit 117 villages. Our work 
in the Doab was during a very favorable time; farmers had 
leisure and we found large audiences at all hours of the day, 
and until eight and ten o'clock at night. For three weeks our 
party consisted of eight men and five women, who usually 
worked in three or four companies. Morning and evening we 
gathered for prayer and praise, and the Master himself was 
always in the midst, and with thankfulness we look back to 
these hours so full of blessing. 

''Several villages on the Ingram and Skinner estate were 
visited, and we found, the Rev.Tafazzul Haqq laying true foun- 



78 



LIGHT IN THE EAST% 



dations for a good work, in a region where little evangelistic 
work has been done. Some of the best village schools are in 
his work; little boys of eight and ten read and write 
very well. Many of our Christian hymns, the catechism, pas- 
sages from the Testament, the Lord's Prayer, and Ten Com- 
mandments were perfectly recited. In two villages, the school 









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MISS ROWE. 



room, the yards and the surrounding house-tops, were crowded 
while the examinations were being held. All stayed until we 
finished and the preaching began. In some of these schools 
half the expenses are borne by the people of the village. 

*^The converted bania,* one of the first fruits of that work, 
was in our party and was an example to believers in faith and 
holy living. His companions had not seen him since his bap- 
tism, and flocked around in every place to hear and see him. 
Many scornful things were said, but he always showed a most 

* Shop-keeper. 



AMONG THE VILLAGES. 79 

Christ-like Spirit. None of our party studied the Bible more 
than Pratapi, and while most of the others were engaged in 
getting settled, gathering fuel, and drawing water, he was 
usually seen under a tree engaged in reading and singing. 

'Every day of these weeks has had its own story. To short 
sighted man some days looked like defeat, but the Captain of 
our salvation has never lost a battle, and my heart has never 
had more of triumph and rejoicing in the work, than during 
these three months. One day when a Jat who had been 
baptized, but finding the way too hard, had gone back, opposed 
us so bitterly that we could not give the message, but returned, 
as if defeated to our camp, cast down but not discouraged. We 
looked to God and saw the triumph from afar. That night we 
prayed that the Jat might be brought back, and two days after 
while talking in a village he came, and to our surprise sat with 
the little group of workers, thus acknowledging his position. 
Pratapi threw his arms around him, and in a few minutes* the 
two left us; the next time I saw him was in Bro. Tafazzul's 
tent where the brethren were praying and reading with him. 
The proud, fighting Jat could not come as a little child, but 
before leaving he said, ** Jesus alone is true, and I know I 
never shall be happy till I return with my whole heart.*' We 
saw him stride across the saffron fields, and every heart was 
hushed as we said, *'Let us pray for him." 

*'We might tell of the dear old woman we met at dusk. She 
had taken an offering to Matadevi who, she supposed, had 
taken her boy. The rice was offered to keep the goddess from 
doing any more harm to the rest of the family. The sweet 
story of Jesus touched her heart and when we closed she said, 
"He shall be my God, and I will pray to him." Then turning 
to a little niece she said, ** Child, you remember the name Yisu 
Masih and remind me if I forget." The next morning as we 
were leaving the village she followed us at a distance because 
the men and boys were all around. While the poor are always 



bo LIGHT IJ^ THE EAST. 

with us and still hear the word gladly, the rich are not always 
indifferent. We have had interesting conversations with edu- 
cated native gentlemen, and more than one would like to do 
what the lower classes are doing, but the lone way is hard for 
them. 

''The other day in one of the villages we asked a well dressed 
native gentleman if he had read or heard the gospel we were 
preaching. He replied with some sarcasm, *' Yes, some bhangis^ 
in our village read and talk of Yisu Masih^'' and there we 
found a group of Christians, with their faces turned away from 
dumb idols to the living Christ. Our work has been chiefly 
among these. In many places they are like sheep in the wil- 
derness — foes without — for when zemindars and others find out 
that these despised ones are learning to read, their hearts are 
imbittered and they oppose them; then there is ignorance and 
surperstition within, and very little instruction given to these 
little ones who need so much. Of late I have been very thank- 
ful for the men raised up for this work. I have found earnest, 
faithful workers who appreciate the responsibilities laid on 
them. Many are walking long distances to reach the scattered 
villages; in a few places mothers with babes walk across fields 
to work and teach. The Bulandshahr district has some good 
strong centers; Jahangirabad is one. Here a large number of 
Christians gathered and we had for nearly two hours a wide- 
awake, interested audience ready to speak as well as to listen. 
In the mornings we visited villages where there were- two or 
three families of Christians. Puran, an old man baptized on the 
roadside by the Rev. Charles Luke four years ago, is a real 
Christian. Although unable to read he is taught by the Spirit 
things which are hidden from the wise and prudent. We were 
surprised to see some of the work in the Rev. Hasan Raza 
Khan's district. His workers are well chosen, and although 
we went to some of the remote parts of his field, we found good 

* Scavengers. 



AMONG THE VILLAGES. Bl 

schools for boys, and many more girls under instruction than 
any other new work which I have visited. 

'*At Gangiri we had a large company of Christians; the boys 
and men were eager to learn and I longed to stay six months 
and teach them. In one place we found an earthen jar hung 
up in the little room where the school was held, and learned it 
held the collection; meal and eggs were dropped into it, some- 
times daily, and sometimes on Sundays. 

**Going from this village to another, we passed one where 
there were Christians, but could not stop. The men and boys 
were indignant, and one said, "What! make Christians of us 
and not have a meeting!" They had caCise to be indignant. 
If all these are to be reached we must all work more, give 
more, and pray more earnestly. God, the mighty God, is in 
this work.'* 




RKID CHRISTIAN COI^T^KGE, I^UCKNOW. 



$2 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

WOMAN'S WORK. 

The extract with which the last chapter closed will have 
suggested to the reader, in the first place, that a sphere for 
woman's labor is found in India, and further, that we have 
already settled the question of admitting women to a share in 
our great work. It cannot be said that the mission fields of 
the world were ever closed against Christian women, but for 
two full generations the transcendent value of their labors in 
that most needed sphere were not appreciated. For this some 
excuse can be found in the fact that woman's way in the ori- 
ental world had not been prepared in the early part of the 
century, but it is probable that the difficulties in her way were 
more imaginary than real. Be the cause what it may, in due 
time wiser counsels prevailed, the mistake was corrected, and 
in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-nine a notable movement 
began in all the churches in favor of organizing missionary soci- 
eties " of the women, by the women, and for the women. " These 
societies have now had their agents in the field long enough to 
test their value as workers, and their presence forms one of the 
most striking features of the foreign missionary work. 

The demand for a women's department in the missionary 
enterprise is largely based upon the fact that in all oriental 
lands women are more or less secluded from the outer world, 
and consequently the gospel cannot have free access to them 
unless a special way is prepared for it. Many millions of the 
more respectable women, not only in India, but throughout all 
oriental countries, are kept from early childhood in a state of 



> 




84 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

rigid seclusion. Millions of them are never permitted to see 
the face of a man unless it be a father, brother, or other very 
close relative. Even where the rule is in a measure relaxed, 
and where the women are permitted to go abroad, as is the 
case in some of the more liberal countries, and also among the 
working classes throughout all of the East, the way of access 
to women and girls is so hedged about in various ways, that 
the great majority of them are secluded from ordinary gospel 
privileges. In the seclusion of remote country villages and 
hamlets women are so timid, and also so hindered by the pre- 
vailing notions of propriety, that they rarely join an audience 
of men when they assemble to hear an itinerant preacher. 
Hence it becomes necessary not only to send Christian women 
to carry the word of life to those in seclusion, but also, in the 
main, to employ the same agency in reaching the mass of the 
women everywhere. 

In addition to this special demand, it has been discovered, 
to the surprise of many good men, that the presence of 
Christian women in the mission field, as elsewhere, in many 
respects duplicates the whole missionary force. Many kinds 
of work can be done, not only as well, but better, by women 
than by men, as has been demonstrated in the school-rooms of 
the United States. Already hundreds of lady teachers have 
taken the places which men would otherwise have occupied in 
the mission schools of India, and thereby set their brethren 
free for other forms of labor. There are very few. kinds of 
work in the foreign field which women cannot do. As teachers 
and evangelists they are in demand everywhere. Many of them 
study medicine and carry both physical and spiritual relief to 
the homes of the suffering; others have become accomplished 
nurses, and are teaching the wives and daughters of converts 
how to perform the duties of this purely Christian calling; 
while some have devoted themselves to the creation of a 
Christian literature for the people of the East, a notable ex- 
ample of which was seen in the case of the late Mi ss Tuck er, 
better known to the literary public as A. L. O. E. 



woman's work. 85 

It would surprise many of our friends in America, and 
especially those who have grave doubts concerning the free- 
dom with which women are entering into competition with 
men in almost every ordinary calling, if they could only see 
how freely some of our Christian ladies in the East take up the 
general management of missions, especially in remote places. 
Perhaps the most notable example of this kind was that of the 
late Mrs. Ingalls, in Burmah, who after the death of her hus- 
band continued to carry on his work among the Karen jungleSj 
leading evangelists upon their tours, giving general direction 
concerning the prosecution of the work, and discharging duties 
which in the United States would be considered utterly foreign 
to woman's sphere, but which strangely enough never seem to 
excite the slightest remark in our foreign missions. Several 
similar instances have occurred in our own work. At the present 
time two of our important stations are practically under the 
direction of ladies, although we have no ecclesiastical title 
by which to designate the position which they hold. Another 
illustration occurs to me in which a lady, belonging to a sister 
denomination, has full control of a mission station, but takes 
the precaution to keep a native ordained preacher close at 
hand to attend to the administration of the sacraments. More 
striking than all, however, is the case of the Australian Bap- 
tists, who have actually established a mission with a number 
of stations in Bengal, concerning which it has been remarked 
by some one that it is a mission which is ''wholly manned by 
women. " 

It would be hard for anyone in the United States to appre- 
ciate the immense proportions of the task which our Christian 
sisters have undertaken in India. The men of that empire can 
never be elevated above the level of their wives and daughters, 
and these on the other hand can only be elevated through the 
efforts of Christian womanhood. In some respects this part of 
the work will probably prove the most difficult we have. The 
women are more ignorant than their husbands, have stronger 



86 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

prejudices, and at the outset are usually found more hostile to 
the gospel. They are bound by social fetters which seem cruel 
to us, but which they themselves prize highly, and from which 
few of them wish to be delivered. To elevate the womanhood 
of India, there must needs be one of the greatest revolutions 
which the world has seen. It is a task which cannot be accom- 
plished in a day, or a year, or a generation, but it is encour- 
aging to observe that in all the wide world there is perhaps no 
other great enterprise which seems to have been entered upon 
with a stronger faith, or a warmer zeal, or a more determined 
spirit, than that which animates the hundreds of Christian 
women who are now struggling to elevate their sisters in the 
East. 

Although woman's work for women in India is of compara- 
tively recent growth, its progress thus far has been extremely 
encouraging. A new generation of Christian women has been 
raised up during the past thirty years, and now large numbers 
of intelligent Christian ladies may be found in every missionary 
circle. Of the two colleges in Asia for women, both of which 
are located in India, one is avowedly Christian, and numbers 
an Indian lady professor among its staff of teachers, while the 
other is presided over by an Indian Christian lady. Miss Bose, 
and is largely imbued with the Christian spirit. It is noted 
also that the weak and foolish fear, of even educated parents, 
lest their daughters should not be married at an early age, is 
rapidly giving way to more sensible notions. In one large 
assembly of young people, I noticed quite a number of unmar- 
ried girls who seemed to me to be over eighteen years of age, 
and on inquiry I found that more than fifty of them had passed 
their eighteenth birthday. I was told that with scarcely an 
exception they were unmarried from choice, and not from 
necessity. Some of them wished to pursue their education 
further; some wished to study medicine; others had special 
plans with which marriage would interfere; while others, and 
perhaps the majority, had not yet met a suitor whom they cared 



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SS LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

to accept. This is a very trifling incident, perhaps, in the 
eyes of the American reader, but to us in India it is full of 
encouragement. It tells a story of progress which everyone 
who is acquainted with Indian society will quickly appreciate, 
and furnishes us with a just ground for hoping that by the end 
of another generation thousands upon thousands of Christian 
women will be found scattered over the empire, who will be 
able to exert a most healthy influence upon the mass of their 
fellow country-women. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CROWN-MAKING. 

* ^J^or our light affliction^ which is but for a moment^ worketh 
for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. 

II Cor. iv, 17. 

It has been beautifully suggested that since the glory which 
we are here said to bear in the eternal world, is elsewhere 
called a crown, the office of our present affliction is to beat out 
(worketh) as if it were gold, the crown which is to adorn the 
believer's brow, when this mortal shall have put on immor- 
tality. The blows of affliction which often seem heavy enough 
to crush us here, are thus made to appear but a part of the 
process by which each crown of glory is prepared for its glori- 
fied wearer in the land of eternal rest. Rest is sweeter after 
toil; joy is brighter after sorrow, and the tearless world will 
shine with a brighter radiance when it succeeds to the present 
life, in which affliction in its various forms is the common 
heritage of us all. 

A striking — I might almost say startling — illustration of the 
depth of affliction through which Christ's disciples are some- 
times called to pass, is found in the case of one of our lady 



CROWN-MAKING. 89 

missionaries, Miss Mary Reed, who went from Ohio to North 
India some years ago, and after a term of faithful labor was 
obliged by failing health to return to America for a furlough, 
which, it was hoped, would not extend beyond two years. 
Early in the year 1891, while an inmate of Christ's hospital 
in Cincinnati, where she had gone for treatment, she was 
obliged to give serious attention to a troublesome sore on the 
end of her right fore-finger. Several physicians had examined 
it, but as none of them had ever seen anything of the kind, it 
was not for a' time regarded as very serious; but after various 
remedies had failed, it was finally proposed to amputate the 
finger. One day while lying in bed, Miss Reed was somewhat 
listlessly tapping the counterpane with her finger, as a relief 
from the dull pain which she had felt for some time, and think- 
ing of God's dealings with her in her past life, when suddenly, 
and so very distinctly that she could not misunderstand it, it 
seemed to be said to her, although no voice spoke: *'The 
trouble with your finger is leprosy ; you must return to India, 
and repair at once to the leper asylum at Pithoragarh, and 
devote the rest of your life to teaching the poor lepers who are 
inmates of that place." Up to that hour not a thought had for 
a moment crossed her mind that the sore on her finger might be 
a symptom of leprosy, and to this day she is unable to account 
for the intimation received, except by assuming, as she does 
without hesitation, that God, by his Spirit revealed it to her. 
She could not remember any occasion on which she had been 
brought into personal contact with a leper, in such a way as to 
have contracted this terrible disease, and to this day we can 
hardly conjecture how she evrer became subject to it. 

When the hospital surgeon called, later in the day. Miss 
Reed told him faithfully what had passed in her mind, and as- 
sured him that she had not a. doubt now as to what troubled her 
finger. Had she even thought of it sooner, she would have 
recognized it long before that eventful hour, but the thought 
had never once crossed her mind. The surgeon, who was an 



90 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

able and experienced physician, tried to dissuade her from 
taking so serious a view of the case, but as he never in his life 
had seen a case of leprosy, he told her that he would look up 
his medical authorities carefully, and see her the following day. 
When he returned next day a glance at his face showed but too 
clearly to what conclusion his studies had led him. While 
hardly able to repress his tears, he in hesitating words told his 
patient that there was reason to fear that her surmise had not 
been altogether incorrect, but that in so important a case he 
would not give a final decision until a consultation was held. 
This took place without delay, and the consulting physicians 
were compelled to admit that Miss Reed had not been mistaken 
'n her statement. To make perfectly sure, however, she was 
sent to an expert in New York, a gentleman who had seen many 
cases of leprosy, but he too confirmed the decision arrived at in 
Cincinnati. There was therefore no alternative but to accept 
the appalling fact, that this consecrated Christian worker had 
become subject to a disease which is, perhaps, dreaded more 
than any other in the world. 

From the very first it was noticed by Miss Reed's friends, 
that she herself did not seem at all crushed by her cruel dis- 
covery. On the other hand she seemed to accept her mission 
as if directly assigned to her from on high, and from that 
moment made no other plan, and talked of no other plan, than 
that of going at the earliest possible day to her distant-mission. 
For obvious reasons, the awful discovery was kept from the 
public for a short time, during which Miss Reed made a fare- 
well visit to her mother. She had written that for important 
reasons she thought it best to return to India immediately, 
and when she met her mother she told her casually in the course 
of conversation that for a special reason she had formed the 
singular resolve never to kiss anyone again, and that she men- 
tioned it in advance so that her mother might not think strangely 
of it if she parted from her, without giving her a farewell kiss. 
The mother did not comprehend her meaning, but supposing 



CROWN-MAKING. 9I 

that she had sufficient reason for forming so singular a resolu- 
tion, she asked for no explanation and let the matter pass. The 
farewell words were spoken, and the farewell embrace given, 
but the afflicted daughter bade adieu to her sorrowing mother, 
knowing that she would meet her no more in this world, with- 
out enjoying the luxury of a farewell kiss. 

She hastened back to India as rapidly as possible, but 
stopped long enough in London to consult Sir Joseph Fayrer, 
the most eminent authority on all Indian diseases to be found 
in the world. Sir Joseph granted her a prolonged interview, 
and treated her with the utmost kindness, but was unable to 
modify in the slightest degree the verdict of the American 
physicians. He gave her, however, the latest remedies, and a 
few monographs on the subject of leprosy, which have since 
proved of value to her. 

Arriving in India Miss Reed proceeded at once to Pithora- 
garh, which is a remote station in Kumaun, among the Hima- 
laya mountains. I met her in Almora in September, 1891, and 
had the pleasure, which was by no means a melancholy pleasure, 
of listening to the story of her trials and triumphs, and cheer- 
ing her on her way. I am glad to say that leprosy, although a 
terrible affliction at best, is by no nieans so dreadful a disease 
as is commonly supposed in America. In some cases the disease 
makes rapid headway, and the end comes in the short space of 
one or two years, but in other cases the patient lives in com- 
parative comfort for ten, fifteen, or possibly even twenty years 
or more. There are several varieties of the disease and none 
of them are at all contagious unless the skin is broken, which 
is not always the case, or when broken, the affected part is 
brought in contact with a cut, or abrasion of some kind, on the 
skin of a healthy person. Hence those of us who have lived 
long in India, have practically ceased to be afraid of lepers, 
and go among them without the slightest hesitation. Thus far, 
medical skill has not been able to discover any cure for this 
much dreaded disease, but it seems to be well established, that 



92 LIGHT IN THE EAST, 

although not able to cure leprosy, certain medicines can arrest 
.its progress, and this gives an unspeakable measure of relief to 
those on whom the disease has not as yet made much 
progress. 

Miss Reed proceeded directly to her work, and for three 
years has been quietly working among the lepers in her asylum. 
Statistics show that the district of Eastern Kumaun suffers 
more from this terrible disease than any other part of India, 
and it certainly seems an extraordinary fact that this daughter 
of affliction should have been sent in this peculiar way to min- 
ister to those who above all need help, and who otherwise 
would have had no one to do for them what she is now doing. 
The nature of Miss Reed's affliction could not long be kept 
concealed, and unfortunately the newspaper reporters, with the 
coarseness which is too characteristic of reporters generally, 
spread it out before the public in terms which must have been 
painful to her relatives. Assuming that this would certainly 
happen, she had taken the precaution to write to her mother 
herself, and tell her the whole painful truth. She has since 
accepted her mission in precisely the same spirit that other 
missionaries and other Christian workers do, who are persuaded 
that they have found the work to which God has sent them, and 
accept it as their lot in life. She is probably as happy as any 
other Christian worker, and does not ever seem for a moment 
to feel that the lines have fallen to her in other than pleasant 
places. The whole story furnishes a wonderful illustration of 
the power of Divine grace, and while there are mysterious fea- 
tures connected with it, which make us almost dumb in the 
presence of so strange a providence, yet no one can hear the 
story told without realizing that God has a thousand ways, not 
only to lead believers home, but to reach the suffering and sor- 
rowing of men who are scattered over our poor earth. Mis- 
sionaries are not devoted above all other Christians, and it 
should not for a moment be supposed that they lead a life of 
semi-martyrdom, and yet beyond all doubt, the missionary field 



CROWN-MAKING. 



93 




MISS MARY REED. 



has afforded startling opportunities for the exercise of Chris- 
tian heroism and Christian devotion of the highest order. It 
is a treasure to any mission to have an afflicted disciple like 
Miss Reed, thus commissioned among its workers^ and in the 
world to come it will no doubt be seen, that although a weary 
sufferer, and practically banished from society, she has been 
through all these years, beating out a more than golden crown, 
which will shine with resplendent glory when the stars above 
us shall have ceased to shine forever. 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER XV. 

SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION. 

The story of our school work in India would be too long 
for these limited pages, but it may suffice to say, briefly, that 
from the very first we have vigorously prosecuted our educa- 
tional work. At first we devoted our chief attention to schools 
for Hindus and Mohammedan boys. In those days we did not 
find ready access to other classes, and it seemed that our most 
successful way of reaching the people would be through the 
doorway of schools, especially those in which the .English lan- 
guage was taught. The better classes were eager to have their 
boys taught English, and the boys themselves were always 
quite eager to get admission to our schools when we invited 
them to come. Some of these schools have done a good work, 
and have developed into important institutions, but in more 
recent years the extraordinary increase of our converts among 
the depressed classes has changed all the conditions of the 
situation, and compelled us to close some of our non-Christian 
schools, and in other cases to change the character of the 
teaching, so as to make them much more decidedly Christian 
than formerly. We still, however, maintain schools of a high 
grade, having no less than eleven high schools and two col- 
leges in operation at the present time.* We are obliged to pro- 

*The two colleges, one for young men and the other for young women, are 
both located in Lucknow, occupying grounds about a mile apart. The former 
has been named "Reid Christian College," in honor of Dr. J. M. Reid, to 
whom our work in India is greatly indebted, and the latter is known as the 
Woman's College of Lucknow. The Rev. W. A. Mansell is Principal of the 
former, and Miss Isabella Thoburn of the latter. 



SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION. 95 

vide schools not only for our Indian converts, but for European 
and Eurasian boys and girls. • Large numbers of Europeans 
who are born in India will make that country their permanent 
home, and the growing community of Anglo-Indians will 
always, in the nature of the case, exert a profound influence 




MISS THOBURN, PRINCIPAL OF WOMAN'S COLLEGE, LUCKNOW. 

upon the destinies of the Indian people. How far they will 
remain permanently separated from the multitudes who are 
popularly called the Natives, remains to be seen, but our 
present duty is manifestly to provide for their religious welfare 
to the fullest extent, and this includes a good Christian educa- 
tion. 

In the chapter on pastor-teachers, our efforts at educating 
the children of our converts in the villages, have been suffi- 
ciently described. At present it need only be added that it is 
our plan, as soon as possible, to provide everywhere properly 
organized schools in which the children can be educated up to 



96 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

what is called in India, the primary standard. Beyond this we 
do not expect to go; at least for another generation, but we 
have adopted the plan of selecting choice boys and girls from 
these primary schools, and promoting them to the boarding 
department of higher institutions. Here again we make a 
second selection, and send on the more promising boys and 
girls to the high schools, and from these again we hope to 
select a choice few who will be worthy of promotion to the col- 
lege classes. 

A stranger visiting our mission field will, perhaps, be struck 
with the prominence which we give to boarding schools. We 
were not long in discovering that it was absolutely necessary 
to separate the children of Christian parents from all their 
home associations, for at least a year or two, in order to give 
them a correct idea of what constitutes a consistent Christian 
life. In the midst of the ordinary village, and especially in 
the midst of heathen and Mohammedan neighbors, the children 
can hardly be expected to get a proper idea of what a Chris- 
tian life really is, and much less can their parents understand 
the meaning of such a term. Like other people, the natives of 
India learn by example much more readily than by precept. 
They must see a Christian life before they can fully compre- 
hend it; hence we formed a plan at a very early period in our 
mission work, to gather out a few boys and girls from each 
community and bring them together in cheap boarding schools, 
where they caii remain long enough to become fully initiated 
into the Christian way of living. The girls are received, for 
the most part, when ten or twelve years of age, and since the 
daughters of our Christians as yet, with few exceptions, begin 
their married life at an early age, we can only hope to keep them 
in school two or three years. They are allowed to marry 
legally at fourteen, but by making special efforts we can induce 
the parents to postpone the marriage two or three years later. 
During this period the girls are able to acquire a moderate 
education, and those of them who begin their married life in 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

their village homes, go out like so many young missionaries 
among the people, and their influence upon them is very good 
in every way.* 

The boys can be expected to remain longer, and most of 
them are more than willing to do so. They are eager to push 
their education as far as possible, as it helps them in getting lu- 
crative situations, and in fact assists them in the battle of life 
in many ways. More of them are able to pursue the high- 
school course, and go on through college, than of their sisters, 
chiefly because the latter are taken out of school prematurely 
on account of marriage, but in the case of both boys and girls 
the influence of the boarding school is beyond all value. In- 
telligent Christians have told me that nothing has done so 
much to elevate the reputation of our village Christians among 
their high-caste neighbors as the distribution of educated 
women among the people. As an illustration I may mention 
the case of a head man of a village, who received a letter one 
day from a postman, but was unable to read it, and it so happened 
that on that particular day he could not find a man in the vil- 
lage who could read it for him. He was extremely anxious to 
know what the letter contained, and while making eager in- 
quiries some one told him that a young woman in the Christian 
quarter was able to read. It is not customary for a man such 
as this head man was to visit the Christian quarter at all, much 
less to go there to ask a favor of a woman, but being very eager 
to have his letter read, he went in that direction, and beckoned 
to a man from whom he inquired if it was true that a woman 
living there could read. When assured that there was such a 

*Dr. J. F. Goucher, the well-known President of the Baltimore Woman's 
College, was among the firSt to recognize the importance of educating a select 
number of our Indian youths, and for eight or nine years past, he has shown 
his interest in the plan by providing for the maintenance of over one hundred 
village schools, and also for sending the same number of promising boys and 
girls to a central boarding school. I have frequently had occasion to say that 
I have seen no work in India which gave promise of better results than tjjif 
enterprise of Dr. Goucher's. 



SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION. 

woman, he asked to have her brought to him, and in a short 
time she appeared, escorted by her husband. The letter was 
■ presented to her, and she at once opened and read it to the 
entire satisfaction of the head man. It was said that this lit- 
tle incident when it became noised abroad, made a profound 

^ impression upon the people. Not only the head man, but every 

other man in the village, must have felt that the Christian 

woman was superior to any other woman in the place, and it is 

impossible for ordinary mortals to fail to respect a woman who 

^ proves herself as worthy of respect as this one was able to do. 

/ About two years ago it began to be felt among our mission- 

aries in India, that the influx of so many thousand converts was 
precipitating upon us a problem of the gravest nature. It was 
felt that we must make provision for the education of the young 
people coming to us, or else stop their coming. The whole 
subject was canvassed most carefully at the Annual Conferences, 
and the most rigid estimates made as to the least possible cost 
of educating a large number of children. It was finally decided 
to make a special offer to Christians in America or elsewhere, 
to the effect that the missionaries would undertake to educate 
ten boys or girls for twelve months, for the nominal sum of 
$ioo. This was to include board, clothing, and tuition. 
An offer of so extraordinary a kind very naturally attracted 
widespread attention, and many liberal responses have been 
made. Large numbers of boys and girls have been gathered 
into boarding schools, but as yet not enough money has been 
received to justify the acceptance of one thousand pupils, as 
was at first contemplated. Meanwhile, some donors are puz- 
zled to know why a larger sum is asked in other cases, and how 
it is that a child can be received and educated for $io a year. 
The answer is that the missionaries avowedly put the figure 
a little below the actual cost. It was a desperate effort to 
meet a desperate emergency. In all boarding schools the rule 
is common to make a reduction when two or more children 
come from a single family. In this case we proceed 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

on the same principle, and in order to provide for as many 
children as possible we fixed upon the number ten, and offered 
to reduce accordingly; but we are not able, as some good 
friends think we ought to be, to provide for a single child for 
less than $15. ' Aside from all other questions, we could not 
think of assuming the trouble it would involve to have a list 
of a thousand children, each with a donor giving $10 a year, 
and expecting a correspondence to be kept up with each child. 
We simply cannot do it, or even think of doing it. We will 
take children at the low rate, provided they are subscribed for 
in ''blocks of ten." Otherwise the lowest price is $15. 

Schools in India are of various grades, and the cost varies 
in different parts of the empire. We have village schools, in 
which a teacher can be employed for $30 a year, or even less. 
In our better boarding schools the cost cannot be reduced much 
below $20 without loss to the mission. In our high schools 
$20 is a low sum with which to provide books, clothing, wash- 
ing, food and tuition. In our colleges the cost is again a little 
higher Twenty-five or thirty dollars ought to be provided 
for each pupil in the Christian boarding-school. 

In addition to our schools for the natives of India, we have 
other schools for Europeans and Eurasians, and these again 
vary in expense according to the grade of the school, or the 
part of the country in which it is located. In Calcutta all 
scholarships are fixed at $84 a year; in Rangoon girls are re- 
ceived for smaller sums, varying from $30 to $50, according to 
special circumstances. There is a difference, however, in the 
grading of the schools. In the mountains the cost is again 
greater for both boys and girls. Donors must not for a moment 
think that when they have given any certain sum for the educa- 
tion of a boy or girl, and chance to hear of another who gives 
less, that there is anything unfair in the agreement. The 
schools are as far apart as San Francisco is from Pittsburg, 
and no rigid rule will apply. 



MISS LILIVATl SINGH, M. A. 



AlISS LILIVAT] SINGH, M. A. 



Miss Singh is professor of English in the Lucknow 
Woman's College. At ten years of age she entered as student 
in the primary class of Miss Thobiirn's Anglo-Vernacular 
School. In course of time she matriculated and entered a 
Calcutta institution, where she graduated. She is one of a 
select few who enjoy the distinguished honors of both an 
M. A. and B. A. degree. 

Miss Singh is a Christian lady of the third generation. 
Her family renounced heathenism when her grandfather and 
his two brothers became Christians. One of the latter suf- 
fered death as a result. Sh^ was brought up in a home where 
women were allowed more liberty than is ordinarily accorded 
under the rules of Hindoo society. 

Before the conversion of these relatives the family was 
of the warrior caste, which is the next to the Brahmin. 

Miss Singh is a fine scholar. She has always been a dili- 
gent student. In her youth she recited, one Christmas occa- 
sion, all the golden texts, memory verses, outlines and topics 
of all the lessons of the year, without making a mistake. 
Being told, in answer to her inquiry, that Greene's history was 
written in excellent EngHsh, she read that book through seven 
times. Thus she always aimed at success. 

Miss Singh's ability has attracted the attention of per- 
sons on more than one occasion. Sir Auckland Colvin, on 
meeting her, remarked to an acquaintance afterward that "she 
was a most remarkable woman ; indeed, the most cultured 
native lady he had ever met." Her address at the Ecumenical 
Conference, New York, was accorded a most flattering re- 
ception. It is pleasant to know that such fine intellectual 
abilities are directed by a will consecrated to Christ. 

T. C, 




MISS LII.IVATI SINGH, 

Professor of I/iterature in Woman's Christian College, 
Ivucknow. 



I02 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

OUR INDIAN MINISTRY. 

So much has already been said in these pages in reference 
to our preachers of various grades, that not very much remains 
to be said in reference to those who are embraced under the 
term, ministry, in the popular sense of that word. For quite 
a number of years it was our policy not to ordain many of our 
preachers to the ministerial office, but as the work has extended, 
and the necessity for thrusting responsibility upon our native 
brethren has become very obvious, our leaders, with few excep- 
tions, have been led to change their views upon the whole 
subject. We are now ordaining very considerable numbers of 
our preachers, and perceive clearly that in the future these 
ordinations must constantly increase rather than diminish. 
We ordain no man however, until he has been thoroughly tried. 
Until a very recent date it was our policy to keep every man 
at least twelve years in subordinate work before he became 
eligible to elders' orders. It would be well if the same long 
period of probation could be enforced in every case, but 
necessity knows no law, and the rapid increase of scattered 
converts makes it necessary either to ordain additional men, or 
introduce informalities in our administration which would 
probably lead to a good deal of confusion. 

As a general rule, an ordained man among us is placed in 
a very responsible position; with few exceptions these men 
have charge- of a group of villages in which Christians live, 
after the manner of an old-time Methodist circuit in the United 
States. Instead of sending two, or at most three, men of equal 



OUR INDIAN MINISTRY. I03 

rank as colleagues, to a circuit of this kind, it is our policy to 
send the man of superior rank and larger experience, who is 
placed in charge of quite a number of subordinates. These 
again are of various ranks, some of them perhaps being new 
converts, while others may have preached for a number of 
years. The ordained pastor is thus made to bear a very 
weighty responsibility, and in every case it is of the utmost 
importance that he should be a trustworthy man; hence we 
provide not only that he should have the proper education, but 
that he should be further educated in the school of experience. 

We are all believers in the priesthood of the people, and 
have learned while in India the lesson which the history of the 
Christian church in all countries so plainly teaches, viz: that 
every -minister worthy the name must come directly from the 
people, and thus prevent the ministerial office from becoming 
the perquisite of a select order. We maintain the policy of 
marking the gifts of all our people, especially of the young 
men, and whenever it becomes evident that a brother is able to 
speak to edification, he is at once put in a position where he 
can exercise his gifts, after which his progress will depend 
mainly upon himself. 

We have a theological school at the city of Bareilly. as is 
probably well known to most readers of these pages. This is 
not a school for making preachers, but distinctly for the 
purpose of training persons who have already become preachers. 
As far as possible the pdlicy is pursued of sending such men to 
this institution as give promise of marked usefulness. Although 
obvious difficulties are encountered, in all such efforts, especi- 
ally in a new work like ours, yet it is evident that year by year, 
we are succeeding in eliminating unworthy candidates, and 
maintaining a steady improvement in the quality of those who 
go out as graduates. Our theological school has for many 
years been under the direction of Dr. T. J. Scott, whose chief 
work in India has been that of modeling and developing the 
institution. In this work he has been indefatigable, and his 



104 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

name will for many years to come be associated with the school. 

A peculiarity of this seminary, and one which perhaps is 
not found in connection with any similar institution in the 
world, is that a training school for the wives of the students is 
conducted on lines parallel with those laid down in the seminary 
itself. Most young men in India marry young, and hence 
very many of those who wMsh to study for the ministry are 
married men when they first come to the seminary. The wives 
of the majority of them are usually quite illiterate, and unless 
these women are educated and trained, they will greatly hinder 
their husbands in subsequent life. To guard against this diffi- 
culty, Mrs. Scott has for a number of years maintained an 
extremely interesting school of married women, and in doing 
so has probably accomplished almost as much good, although 
in a much more simple way, as her husband has done among 
the young men. I feel as if I were treading on doubtful 
ground, and yet can hardly resist the temptation to remark, 
that it would be well for all the Christian ministers of the' 
world, if their wives could also receive a special training for 
the position and work which they are expected to occupy in 
.after life. 

It rarely happens that a young man attending our theolo- 
gical school is able to pay his own way, even in part, and hence 
the policy has been pursued from the first of procuring endow- 
ments and scholarships for helping these young men through. 
At the present rate of exchange, from $25 to $40 will suffice to 
maintain a student, the expense depending in each case on the 
size of the family. Generously disposed friends could hardly 
do a better work than to pay down a sufficient sum of money to 
endow such a scholarship for all time to come. 

The attention of our friends in America ought to be called 
to the fact, although we are preaching the gospel in sixteen 
different languages, we have only one theological school, and 
the teaching of this institution is conducted in only one lan- 
guage. We do not need immediately fifteen new institutions, 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

but we certainly shall require four or five such schools before 
many years. It would be found impossible, even if we made 
the attempt, to give instruction at Bareilly to students who did 
not understand Hindustani. It may yet be found barely pos- 
sible to maintain one school for Marathi and Gujrati students 




THE KEV. T. J. SCOTT, D. D. 



in West India, or possibly for students who speak two kindred 
languages in South India, but it is more probable that a 
separate school will be required for each language. Truly the 
demands which our rapidly unfolding work will make upon the 
Church of the early future, will be such as would have seemed 
utterly incredible a generation ago. 




BISHOP WM. TAYLOR, 



Who laid deep the foundations of the work among 
the Domiciled English of India. 



SUNDAV-^SCHOOtS. »0^ 



CHAPTER XVII. 

SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 

Thirty years ago Sunday-schools had little more than a 
nominal existence in India. The few English churches in the 
large cities, of course, maintained Sunday-schools in a more or 
less formal way, and also a beginning had been made among 
the Indian converts in most parts of the country. These schools 
were, however, for the most part very much unlike the Sunday- 
schools of the present day in the United States and England. 
The chief difficulty was found in the absence of pupils. The 
Christian communities were nearly all small, and even in 
country districts, where Christians are more numerous, the value 
of the Sunday-school as a missionary agency had not been fully 
appreciated. The difficulty which was encountered by those 
who made efforts to sustain Sunday-school work more widely, 
was- chiefly caused by the unwillingness of the Indian and 
Mohammedan boys to attend. Of course nothing could be done 
among the girls for the sufficient reason that in those days 
girls' day-schools had hardly yet become known. Both adults 
and children were afraid of every building which was, or seemed 
to be, a place of Christian worship, and hence all attempts to 
bring the boys together on Sunday for a service which resembled 
Christian worship, had failed. 

A way out of this difficulty was finally discovered somewhat 
unexpectedly. Instead of trying to bring the children to the 
Sunday-school it was found much more easy to take the Sunday- 
school to the children; in other words, by giving up a little of 
the outward formality, and resorting to other places than 



lo8 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

churches, it was found that large numbers of boys could be col- 
lected, and interested in a simple routine which served all the 
purpose of a Sunday-school, without exactly sustaining its out- 
ward form. It was during the year 1871 that Mr. Craven, then 
stationed in Lucknow, began to gather groups of boys together, 
at first in out of the way places, and afterward in the streets, 
and induced them to join in singing simple hymns to native 
airs. The boys were delighted with the exercises, and the 
spectators who gathered to see and' hear were also pleased, 
while no one seemed to think for a moment that Christian wor- 
ship was being performed before their very eyes. The next 
step was to induce the boys who attended school to engage in 
singing, and very soon it was found perfectly practicable to get 
all the boys belonging to the several day-schools to come 
together on Sunday for singing and scripture recitations. Once 
started, the work spread rapidly, and experiments made in other 
stations proved in every way successful. Before the lapse of 
six months a new Sunday-school work had been fully inaugu- 
rated in nearly all our mission stations, and as the years went 
by a similar work has spread all over India. 

These Sunday-schools are conducted in a very informal way, 
and yet serve a very important purpose. The boys are sum- 
moned to the place of meeting by the voice of singing, and 
always gather promptly; after singing a few hymns, all join in 
repeating the Lord's Prayer; then more singing follows, and 
after that, repeating of verses, answering questions in a simple 
catechism, receiving cards each having a verse of Scripture 
printed on it, and at the close of all a short exhortation by the 
superintendent. As it nearly always happens that a number of 
adults gather to look on and hear, the superintendent often 
takes advantage of the opportunity to give a short but pointed 
sermon, and in this way something like a regular Christian 
service is held. Of course we are obliged to vary the program 
very much according to circumstances. In every case singing 
is the most prominent part of the service, and whenever inter- 







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no LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

est lags or the boys become restive, the singing of a hymn or 
two is sure to restore order, and revive the wavering interest of 
the pupils. 

I once rose at daylight and went out into a country village, 
to witness the procedure of a young man with two or three assist- 
ants, who carried on a number of Sunday-schools. I arrived 
at the spot before sunrise, and was directed to an open space 
where the ground was beaten hard, on which the children 
usually met. The superintendent first took his cane and drew 
a number of parallel lines on the ground at a distance from one 
another of about four feet, and separated in the middle by an 
aisle about six feet wide. The singing then began, when im- 
mediately the children came running from all parts of the vil- 
lage and ranged themselves with their toes to the lines which 
had been drawn on the ground, so that in a few minutes they 
were all in as good position as if seated upon rows of benches. 
After singing and repeating the Lord's Prayer, they squatted 
down on the ground in the regular order which they had first 
assumed, and then the exercises of the school went on, with 
occasional interruptions, it is true, and yet upon the whole, in 
almost as orderly a way as if they had been inside a building. 
It was necessary, however, as it always is in such cases, to do 
everything quickly, and hence the school was closed in a little 
less than half an hour from the time that the first scene began. 
A few minutes later the superintendent and his assistants were 
mounted on a dog-cart, and hastening to another village to hold 
a second school. Their plan was to hold three such schools in 
the morning, so as to finish their work and get back home be- 
fore the heat became oppressive. 

At the close of 1895 no less than 92,000 children were in 
attendance at the Sunday-schools of our mission in India and 
Malaysia. Not all of these were Christian, and yet every one 
of them is in a very practical sense under Christian influence. 
The wildest boy from the streets regards himself as placed in 
gome slight relation to Christianity when he becomes an in- 



SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. Ill 

mate of a Christian Sunday-school. The hymns learned in 
these schools are sung everywhere, and sung all the time, and 
thus hundreds of thousands hear songs of salvation, which many 
of them in turn learn how to sing, and very few of them will 
ever forget. The best feature of this work is that it 's capable 
of almost indefinite expansion, and no doubt as the years go by 
the good work will be taken up by our future converts, and 
carried on with constantly increasing efficiency. 

Closely akin to our Sunday-school work is the new agency of 
the Epworth League, which has not only been introduced 
among our converts, but has met with unexpected success. We 
have now among our Christians a very considerable number of 
young people, many of whom are educated and intelligent per- 
sons, and all of whom take a very lively interest in the Ep- 
worth League. They find in it opportunities for improving 
themselves, and also for exercising their gifts, which they 
highly prize. I have frequently attended their meetings, and 
have always been struck not only with the interest manifested, 
but with the ability with which their work is conducted. Young 
men, andsometimes young women as well, have learned to 
preside, not only with dignity, but with no little skill. The 
discussions which follow the reading of essays, or the introduc- 
tion of resolutions of various kinds, are often extremely inter- 
esting. These league meetings are not by any means mere 
debating schools, but serve other purposes with marked success. 
In them our young people discuss various questions of mission- 
ary policy, form plans for progressive work, and find oppor- 
tunities for developing such talent as they may possess, as 
speakers and writers. 

It is an encouraging thought that we have a large host of 
young people now about ready to step out upon the stage of 
active life, who are vastly better equipped for service than the 
young people of the present generation could possibly have 
been. Happyi ^he church which knows how to take care of 
itsj ^ung men and women . We have little to fear so long a§ it 



112 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

is apparent that our young people do not desert the altars of 
the church in which they have been reared, when they reach 
the years of manhood and womanhood. Up to the present 
date no indication of such a tendency has appeared among our 
Christians. It is devoutly to be hoped that throughout all the 
years to come we shall be able, whatever other interests we 
may have to sacrifice, to retain all our sons and daughters 
within the pale of the church in which they have been born 
and brought up. 




MKTHODIST PUBIJSHING'hOUSB:, I.UCKNOW. 



OUR PUB\.ISHING INTERESTS. 15| 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

OUR PUBLISHING INTERESTS. 

Missionaries in all lands have always found it necessary, 
sooner or later, to use the press as an auxiliary to their work, 
but it is beginning to be felt by many that, not only has the 
value of this agency been underrated in the past, but that the 
missionary enterprise has entered upon an era in which it will 
become absolutely necessary to give the press a prominence far 
beyond that which it now enjoys. In our own mission a very 
unpretentious beginning was made at Bareilly, as far back 
as i860, when Dr. Waugh set up the first printing press of our 
mission in that city. For many years, however, but little prog- 
ress was made, though the press had been removed to Lucknow, 
and its resources somewhat increased, until 1872, when the Rev. 
T. Craven assumed charge, enlarged the basis on which the 
work had been carried on, and in the course of a few years 
succeeded in building up the largest and most vigorous mission 
press in the empire. 

Our Lucknow press, although now well equipped and con- 
stantly employed, can only provide for the wants of Northern 
India, where the Hindustani language is universally spoken. 
This language exists in two main branches, Urdu and Hindi. 
In printing the former no less than four different characters are 
employed, one a Romanized Urdu, one Persi-Arabic adapted 
to the use of type, and one of the same character employed in 
lithographic work. In addition to these, English is also 
printed to a very considerable extent. It can readily be un- 
derstood that a well equipped publishing house such as we 
8 



114 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

have at Lucknow, will have all its resources fully taxed in pro- 
viding a literature which must be printed in five different 
characters. The output of work, although large, is in no measure 
what will be required a generation hence, when the 103,000,000 
people speaking Hindustani begin to turn by hundreds of 
thousands, and probably millions, toward Christianity. We 
try to look to the future by providing for the present, and hence 
find it necessary to plan for a steady enlargement of our Luck- 
now press. It has thus far been built up with very little assist- 
ance from America, but friends interested in this department 
of our work could hardly do better than make generous provis- 
ion for its enlargement. 

In 1885 our mission made its first beginning in this line in 
Calcutta by establishing a press in that city, which it is hoped 
will in time prove a source of great blessing to the 40,000,000 
people who speak the Bengali language. The Bengalis are 
noted for their intellectual activity, and the English language 
and education have made greater progress among them than 
among any other Indian people. The Bengali language is com- 
paratively modern, and is yet to some extent in a formative stage, 
but as might have been expected among such a people, vernac- 
ular literature has begun to attract no little attention. News- 
papers and other periodicals, and books of various kinds, are 
multiplying in Calcutta, Dacca, and elsewhere, and it is evident 
that we must make liberal provision, not only for the literary 
wants of the Bengali Christian community but for the general 
diffusion of Christian knowledge among the people of the prov- 
ince. 

Our third publishing house is located in the city of Madras, 
where it is in touch with all thj races of Southern India. Dr. 
A. W. Rudisill first set up a small press in that city some years 
ago, and by careful management succeeded in extending its 
work until it gained an established position, and demonstrated 
the fact that if properly managed a publishing house could be 
established in Madras with unlimited opportunities for useful 



OUR PUBLISHING INTERESTS. II5 

ness among the people who speak the Tamil, Kanarese and 
Telugu languages. 

Our fourth publishing enterprise is located in the far-off 
city of Singapore, where the Rev. W. G. Shellabear began the 
work about four years ago. Mr. Shellabear, while a Captain 
of Engineers in the British army, was stationed at Singapore, 
and there became acquainted with our missionaries, and after 
mastering the Malay language associated himself with them in 
their preaching and other work. Becoming interested in the 
Malays, and in Christian work generally, and also feeling a 
conviction that God would have him devote his life to mis- 
sionary work, this young officer, although enjoying exceptional 
prospects in the most popular arm of the English military/ 
service, resigned his place and consecrated his life to the 
nobler calling of a missionary of Christ. He returned to Lon- 
don, obtained permission to enter a printing office, and for 
some time could be seen among the regular workmen, hard at 
^work himself, and busy in mastering the details of the printer's 
calling. In due time, having secured a suitable preparation, 
he returned to Singapore, taking with him a sufficient plant to 
begin the work of printing, and set up his new press in a very 
unpretentious way. The work prospered under his care, the 
plant has been increased, and premises have been rented in 
the business part of the city, where the work is now carried on 
successfully. The printing is mostly in the Malay language, 
and in the Arabic character, which is used by most of the 
Malays who are Mohammedans. 

The latest enterprise of the kind is found in Bombay — the 
New York of India. The two chief languages of Western India, 
Marathi and Gujrati are both spoken \n Bombay. The people 
are intelligent, the schools are appreciated, newspapers in the 
native languages flourish, and at that port of Bombay the pub- 
lications of an infidel character are received from Western 
lands. The opportunity for conferring a very decided benefit 
to India in making the publishing house at this point efficient 
and strong is of great moment. 



OUR PUBLISHING INTERESTS. 

Our great publishing work in the East must be put upon a 
firm foundation and pushed with all possible vigor. Without 
it the future of our church in the East must necessarily be more 
or less clouded. In modern times, as of old, it may be said of 
God's people that they are destroyed for lack of knowledge. 
While we give our converts everything else, we must provide 
for them healthful reading; they must be kept abreast of 
events; they must learn what kind of a world they live in and 
what is going on around them, and especially be kept ac- 
quainted with the great movements which God himself is 
directing among the nations, not only in their own India, but 
among all the nations of the world. In other words, they 
must become a reading people, and in view of their great pov- 
erty, their more fortunate brothers and sisters in Christian 
lands must help to provide for this great want. 




MISSION CHURCH, SINGAPORE, MAI^AYSIA. 



Il8 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

OUR FOREIGN MISSION. 

It is a hopeful sign of healthy progress, when a mission 
planted in a non-Christian country becomes strong enough, and 
courageous enough, to repeat its own history by planting a new 
mission in another land, that is, in aland foreign to the country 
in which the mission has been established. Such instances have 
occurred in various fields, and practically more than once in our 
own history in India. In a region which embraces so many 
nationalities as India, and where vast areas are still destitute of 
missionary agencies of all kinds, any advance into new territory 
is practically very nearly the same as establishing a new foreign 
mission. In the present case, however, I wish to speak of a 
movement which, in the strict geographical sense of the word 
was foreign to India. I refer to the Malaysia mission, with its 
headquarters at Singapore. The missionary party of four per- 
sons who visited that city in 1885 to plant the mission, were 
obliged to take a sea voyage of 1,900 miles from Calcutta, down 
the south-eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, to their destination, 
and they certainly all felt that they were practically going from 
their adopted country to a foreign land. 

It is not my purpose to give a detailed account of the plant- 
ing of this mission. For full particulars of this very interesting 
movement the reader is referred to my book, *'India and 
Malaysia." At present it is only designed to point out the 
remarkable influence which this enterprise has had, not only 
upon our missionaries as a body, but upon those of our converts 
who have been able to appreciate the full import of a movement 
of this kind. It may be well enough to say, parenthetically, that 
all foreign missions should be encouraged to look beyond their 



OUR FOREIGN MISSION. 



119 



own immediate neighborhood, and hold themselves in readiness 
at all times to enter any open door which God may set before 
them. Such an attitude keeps them in lively remembrance of 
the great commission which they, above all others, bear, and not 
only stimulates their zeal, but hinders a tendency to contracted 
views with limited interests, which sometimes manifests itself 
even among successful missionaries. 

Our mission in Malaysia was first established in the face of 
extraordinary difficulties. It had not been regularly authorized 




DR. W. F. OLDHAM. 

by our missionary friends in America, and we had no financial 
resources with which to sustain it. In the way of a missionary 
staff we had Dr. W. F. Oldham and his wife, and these two 
isolated workers were sent into a new region, to establish a most 
responsible work in the face of very great difficulties, under cir- 
cumstances which, in the eyes of the whole Christian world, 
would have excused them frcm making the attempt. It was 



I20 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

literally an effort to establish a foreign mission without any 
capital whatever, except the promises of God and the conviction 
that the hand of providence guided us thither, and that the 
spirit of God prompted us to undertake the work. With regard 
to the progress of this work, suffice it to say that it has been in 
many ways very remarkable. We have gained an exceedingly 
strong foothold in the city of Singapore, and our brethren are 
preaching to the Chinese in two or three different languages, to 
the Malays, the Tamil colonists from Ceylon and India, and to a 
goodly number of Europeans. Four ladies who work on the 
DeacDness basis have come into possession of a beautiful home, 
and are carrying on a work of extreme interest among the 
Chinese and Tamil women and girls. The Anglo-Chinese 
school for boys and young men has had a career of remarkable 
prosperity, and is now said to be the_Jarges^t_Chinese mission 
school in the world. An orphanage for Chinese and Malay boys 
has been established; a soldiers institute opened for European 
troops; a vigororous little publishing house put in operation, and 
rescue work commenced chiefly for the help of Chinese women, 
and lastly a large number of Chinese converts have been baptized 
and organized into a Christian church. 

A second station has been opened in the city of Penang, which 
is built on a small island, 350 miles further up the coast. Here 
the story of our success in Singapore has, in many respects, 
repeated itself in the short space of three years. A very large 
school for Chinese boys has been successfully established, and 
also smaller schools for Indian boys and girls, regular preaching 
in English has been maintained, and a good work among the 
Chinese and Indian women is also reported. The latest letters 
received bring word of the recent opening of a new station on 
the Peninsula, at a place called Ipoh; and an out station was 
also opened two years ago in the ancient city of Malacca. 
Urgent calls reach our missionaries from several points in 
Sumatra, while the great island of Borneo lies about two and 
a half days sail to the eastward. This island was visited some 
years ago by two of our missionaries, with a view to finding a 



OUR FOREIGN MISSION. 



I2l 



suitable station for our occupancy, and at a later day an un- 
successful attempt was made to penetrate into the interior from 
the north. Dr. Luering was then appointed to a small 
station on the coast, where he remained nearly a year, studying 
the Dyak language and trying to find some door of access to the 
people living in the region beyond. We were obliged, however, 
to recall him to Singapore, to strengen our force, which had been 
weakened in that important center. 

When at the following session of the Central Conference 
the Rev. Dr. Luering gave a report] of his work in far off 
Forneo, an extraordinary impression was made upon the 
Blinds of the delegates. 





DYAK CHIEF. DYAK. 

All the interior of the great island of Borneo, an island, by 
the way, which is as large as France, is inhabited by tribes of 
wild people called Dyaks. These men, without exception, are 
said to be "head hunters,'* that is, men who make it an object in 
life to possess themselves of the skulls of persons killed by them- 
selves. It is said that a young man is not considered worthy of 
acceptance as a husband until he has killed somebody; and every 
man's standing is much influenced by the number of polished 
skulls which he is able to hang up under the ridge-pole of his 
bamboo dwelling. A common belief is entertained that when a 
man kills anyone and possesses himself of the skull of his victim. 



122 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

that as long as he keeps it, he will have incorporated into his own 
person all the courage and other virtues which belonged to the 
■ murdered man, and hence every Dyak warrior is extremely un- 
willing to part with one of these trophies. 

It is not strange that the big, rich island of Borneo is sparsely 
inhabited; it would be impossible for it to be otherwise. The 
people spend their days in hunting one another down, and murder 
has long since ceased to be regarded as a serious crime. It is 
among such people as these that, in some parts of the island, 
German missionaries have already achieved notable success, and 
it seems as if God, in his providence, designs that our own mis- 
sionaries should have a share in the great work of rescuing one 
of the most beautiful regions on the globe, from the reign of 
heathenism in its most cruel character. 

After giving some details in regard to his life in Borneo, Dr. 
Luering went on to speak of the terrible ravages caused by this 
custom of head-huntmg. During his comparatively brief stay he 
was able to master one of the Dyak dialects sufficiently to 
converse freely with the people,- and among others a man of con- 
siderable local influence seemed to be much influenced by what 
he heard concerning Christ, and his mission among men. He 
had frequently talked to Dr. Luering about becomimg a Chris- 
tian, and at times it seeme'd as if he was really inclined to take 
that decisive step. This man had no less than ninety skulls sus- 
pended in his dwelling, and his visitors would always see them 
occupying their conspicuous place, and know that an awful story 
of crime was probably connected with each one of them. 

When Dr. Luering received his summons to return imme- 
diately to Singapore, he called on this man to say farewell. It 
was a little after sunset, and the evening shadows were already 
beginning to fall upon the village. The Dyak was much sur- 
prised, and apparently sincerely sorry, when the missionary told 
him that he must leave next day, and that he had come to say 
farewell. The Dyak remonstrated warmly, and urged him to* 
remain, but was told in reply that there seemed no prospect that, 
even if he should remain, he or any other Dyaks would give up 



OUR FOREIGN MISSION. 123 

their sins and become Christians. He was assured that possibly 
in a little time the man of the house himself would take that 
much desired step, whereupon Dr. Luering said to him, "If you 
are sincere, you will give me a token of your honest purpose. You 
have often told me you would be a Christian, and you now re- 
peat it again; if you will become a Christian I will take the 
responsibility of remaining, to help the rest of your people into 
a better life; or, if you will even give me a pledge of your sin- 
cere purpose to become a Christian in the future, I w^ill see to 
it that someone comes to you without delay. The pledge which 
I ask is this: let me take one of those skulls and carry it back 
with me to Singapore, and I will keep it as a token on your part 
that you wish us to return, and that you honestly intend to be- 
come a Christian man." At the mention of so startling a 
proposal the TJyak grasped his long knife, a terrible weapon in 
the use of which they are fearfully skilful, and looked as if he 
would revenge the insult offered him on the spot. His 
friends also looked startled, for according to their notions no 
proposal could have been more insulting. The missionary, 
however, remained calm, and persisted in repeating his pro- 
posal. There was silence for a little time, and then the Dyak, 
pointing to the skulls, said to Dr. Luering, ''Take one." The 
permission was immediately accepted, and the horrible trophy 
was carried back to Singapore. 

When Dr. Luering finished the recital of this story some one 
struck up a strain of the hymn with which we had all been fa- 
miliar since earliest childhood: 

''Shall we whose souls are lighted 

By wisdom from on high, 
Shall we to men benighted 

The lamp of life deny?" 

and as we all joined in singing the familiar words, an extra- 
ordinary influence seemed to fall upon the assembly. It was 
a baptism of missionary love and zeal. None of us had ever 
seen anything like it in our missionary experience. 



124 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER XX. 

BISHOP E. W. PARKER. 

Rev. E. W. Parker, D. D., Missionary Bishop for South- 
ern Asia, was born at St. Johnsbury, Vermont, January 2ist, 
1833. He received his education at Newberry Seminary and 
at the BibHcal Institute at Concord, New Hampshire. He 
joined the church in 1853 and was admitted into the Ver- 
mont Conference in 1857. After one pastorate of two years 
he was ordained Deacon and Elder by Bishop Ames and 
sailed with J. W. Waugh, C. W. Judd, J. M. Thoburn and 
C. R. Downey for India. They arrived on the 21st of August. 

Bishop Parker's first appointment was to the Bijnaur 
District, in which were one million of people, who had never 
heard a missionary. Here he gained a knowledge of the 
Hindustani language. From Bijnaur he went to Moradabad. 

In 1864 he commenced the presiding eldership term, in 
which he continued, with a break of only three years, until 
he was elected Bishop in 1900. 

In 1885 commenced the great revival, the turning of 
thousands of the natives to Christ. Bishop Parker led, but 
such men as T. J. Scott, Hoskins and many other brethren, 
both American and Hindustani ably seconded the effort. 

In Moradabad the high school and all the schools at- 
tained a high state of efficiency. His well-formed plans and 
strong administration so gained the confidence of consecrated 
stewards like Dr. Goucher that means were provided him for 
placing the educational work on a firm foundation. 

Bishop Parker sees all features of the work and sup- 
ports every efifort which has for its end the building up of 
Christ's kingdom. T. C. 







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BISHOP E. W. PARKER, D. D. 



BISHOP WARNE, D. D. 125 

CHAPTER XXI. 

BISHOP WARNE, D. D. 

Bishop Frank W. Warne was born in 1854 and joined the 
Methodist Church of Canada in 1868. In 1874 he joined the 
Ontario Conference of the M. E. Church and was ordained 
Deacon in 1876 and Elder in 1878 by Bishop Carmen. He 
served in Manitoba as a missionary three years. In 1884 he 
graduated from Garret Bibhcal Institute and took pastorates 
in the suburbs of Chicago. 

In 1887 h^ went to India and took up the very responsible 
position of pastor of the EngHsh Church. (This church seats 
1,400.) That pastorate has continued for thirteen years, and 
for twelve of these years he has been Presiding Elder of the 
Bengal District. 

With the pastorate of the Calcutta church go many other 
duties. He has had much to do with the building up of 
Christ's cause in its very important school work. English 
schools, both for girls and boys, have been well maintained. 
On the philanthropic side he has stooped to lift up some of the 
"submerged tenth" found in Calcutta. Two orphanages and 
one industrial home are helpful to waif and stranded adult. 
He is the general secretary of the Epworth League of India 
and the Lord's Day Union. 

Calcutta is the headquarters of the government of the 
empire of India, and of the subordinate government of Ben- 
gal. Great movements which are intended to exercise a 
moral influence upon the millions of India usually emanate 
from the Calcutta missionary body. It has fallen to the lot 
of our Bishop more than once to be the representative of 
this missionary body to convey its important conclusions and 
resolutions to the Governor-General and his council. 

T. C. 



126 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



CHAPTER XXII 

SOOBOONAGAM AMMAL. 



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SOOBOONAGAM AMMAL. 



Sooboonagam is a convert to Christianity of recent date. 
The incidents briefly given shed light upon the Zenana work 



SOOBOONAGAM AMMAL. 1 27 

and the career of a woman of India in the very highest posi- 
tion of Hfe. A most interesting account of this lady's con- 
version has been written by Miss Grace Stephens. The fol- 
lowing is the substance of an interview taken from the New 
York Tribune : 

Sooboonagam Ammal is the daughter of A. L. Venka- 
taramana Pantulu, the first man to take the double degree of 
M. A. and B. L. in the University of Madras. He held high 
government places and was one of the examiners of the uni- 
versity. At the time of his death he was sub-judge in the 
district of Madura. He was a leading citizen of Madras, 
enjoyed the friendship and confidence of eminent Europeans 
and Hindoos and possessed great wealth. The family be- 
longed to the strictest sect of Brahmis — the Pantulas, the 
Hindoo missionaries or priestly class. Sooboonagam w^as al- 
ways of a religious turn of mind. From her earliest days 
there was no ceremony in which she did not take part. She 
went with the family to eight sacred rivers, besides bathing 
many times in the sea. She visited fifty temples, and the 
bread that she ate was brought to her from the temple at 
Triplicane. At one time she fasted for forty days to appease 
the gods and have peace in her home. She took nothing at 
this time but milk. On another occasion, in order to per- 
form a ceremony rigidly, she fasted for twenty-five days, and 
went every evening to the sea at Cassimode to bathe and 
so purify herself. During those days of fasting she per- 
formed penances with every ceremony. She used to go 
around a certain sacred tree forty-two times "early every 
morning, and at each circuit made an offering to the shrine 
attached to the holy tree. Not satisfied with this, she joined 
her mother in taking upon herself the seal of the priests. 
This is seldom done by young women ; but her mother, as a 
token of being wholly devoted to the gods and that she was 
to live a most sacred life, had the seal imbedded in the flesh 
of her own arm. The priests refused to do this for Sooboona- 



128 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

gam Ammal, notwithstanding her entreaties and the large 
sum of money she paid them. However, instead of seaUng 
her on the arm they gave her a sacred powder always to be 
worn upon her person. 

Sooboonagam was married when she was ten years old to 
her nearest marriageable relative, w^ho was a worthless 
hanger-on in the family. Her father died just before this, 
leaving her her "portion." Ten thousand rupees ($3>35o) 
were spent at her wedding, many important people were 
present, and gifts of jewels, clothes and vessels which she 
received amounted to a fortune. 

According to the custom of Hindoo wives, she divided her 
time between her mother's and her husband's homes. It 
was at the former place that she first met Christian teachers. 
There were prayers in the Vedas and Shastras which she 
could not perform without the knowledge of Tamil, and to 
learn that language she employed a teacher from the Metho- 
dist mission of Madras. But it was a rule with these women 
not to give instruction unless the Gospels could be taught. 
This was explained to Sooboonagam, but she assured her 
mother and friends that such teaching would go in one ear 
and out of the other. Gradually she lost zeal for idol worship, 
became interested in the Bible, resolved to become a Chris- 
tian and give herself to the w^ork of the Lord. On a Christ- 
mas eve she took the decided step ; left_home, left all, and 
alone, save the Savior's presence, made her way to the 
mission house. Here she found Miss Stephens, the repre- 
sentative of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, who 
welcomed her. 

The grief and chagrin and indignation of her friends were 
great, and every effort was put forth to wipe out what they 
considered the greatest possible disgrace. The mother 
undertook a pilgrimage of i,6oo miles to Benares, the great 
holy city of the Hindoos, and the effigy of the living disciple 
of Christ was burned. 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. I2g 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 

By Bishop F. W. Warne, D. D. 

An account of that dreadful landslide ; the burial alive of five of the 
Lee children; the anguish of Mrs. Lee; the courage of the fourteen- 
year-old Edith Warne, and the trying experience of the heroic Miss 
Stahl, the brave Mrs. Warne and the intrepid Miss Perkins, with the 
testimony of Wilbur Lee, saved for a week, who tells his story of the 
last hours of his brother and four sisters. 

Explanation of Indian Terms: 

Ayah — nurse, woman servant. Sahil ■ — sir. 

Mall — boulevard. Titlfiii — a light lunch at noon. 

Miss Sahib — young lady. Bearer — servant in charge of a house, 

The a is pronovmced as a in man ; the i as i in hit. 

THE FIRST NEWS IN CALCUTTA. 

"Both Safe at Grand Hotel. Ida Villa Destroyed." Two 
gentlemen were waiting at my home for an explanation of 
the above telegram when I came in to dinner at 7 p. m. Sep- 
tember 25th. They supposed I could explain how 'Tda 
Villa" had been destroyed as it stood on the mountain side at 
Darjeeling, just above Arcadia, in which we had our Darjeel- 
ing Girls' School. It was my first intimation of anything out 
of the ordinary. I remember saying, as a first thought, 'Tf 
there had been an earthquake we would have felt it, or would 
have had the news ; there must have been a fire." "Ida Villa" 
could have burned and Arcadia could have escaped, I 
thought, and was only slightly anxious ; but I was anxious. 

My servant came in and I asked: "Has a telegram come 
for me?" ^'Yes, sahib, but the man would not l^ave it with- 

9 



I30 



LIGHT IN THE EAST. 



out a receipt." I knew then that there was trouble, but what ? 
While we stood bewildered, another gentleman, whose 
daughter was in Arcadia, arrived with a telegram he had re- 
ceived. It read, ''Heavy landshde, Winnie safe, coming by 
first train.'' ''Winnie," his daughter, was in Arcadia; my 
own wife and daughter were in Arcadia. Are they safe? 
What is in the undelivered telegram ? were the questions that 
came rushing to my mind. The cause of the destruction of 




DARJBELING. 



"Ida Villa" had been explained, but how "heavy" the "land- 
slide" I did not know. 



HASTENS TO TELEGRAPH OFFICE. 

I hastened to the telegraph office for the missing tele- 
gram, but could get no trace of it. I then, with a burden of 
fear and uncertainty, hurried to several newspaper offices, and 
learned that the following telegram had been sent from the 
Commissioner at Darjeeling to the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal : 



THE STORY OF TIJE DARJEELING DISASTER. 13I 

''Mall Villas destroyed, lives lost as follows : D. H. Lee's 
children, eldest girl found dead, eldest boy saved, rest miss- 
ing. At Ida Villa, Phcebe and Ruth Wallace, Eric Anderson, 
all dead/' 

These lost children were pupils of Arcadia, situated just 
below ''Ida Villa." How they got to 'Ida Villa," and what 
about the rest, was all a mystery. I mused. Lee's children 
all dead but one! How can I tell it? How can they bear it? 
My wife and child must be alive, because their names are 
not among the dead. Then the many possible conditions be- 
tween being dead and having escaped without injury were in 
my mind. Who else has suffered? I was not told of sweet 
Violet Pringle, and did not know of her death until next 
morning, when her name appeared in the papers. I hastened 
toward home, and on my way met Rev. Herbert Anderson, 
India Secretary of the Baptist Mission. He had received a 
telegram stating that his "dear boy Eric" had been kiUed, 
but he was still hoping that it was not true. It was my pain- 
ful duty in the darkness of the night to confirm the sad news, 
and see him clasp his head with both hands, and to hear him 
pray : "O God, help his poor mother." None but those who 
have had such news concerning their own can understand 
its crushing power. I had to hasten on to the Deaconess 
Home in which Mr. and Mrs. Lee were then living, and, How 
shall I tell them? w^as the uppermost thought. When I ar- 
rived at the home, I met Miss Maxey and Miss Blair, two 
deaconesses, at the door. Let Miss Blair describe what fol- 
lowed : 

"A message had come for Mrs. Robinson, and Miss 
Maxey and I started out to take it across to her. Mr. Warne, 
just returned from the telegraph ofifice, met us ; his face was 
drawn, I thought, with anxiety for his own. He seized the 
envelope, tore it open, and read, 'Flora (Robinsin) safe. 
Coming by first train.' No news of his family. Miss Maxey 
went in with the message, and Mr. Warne, motioning me 



132 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

aside, said in a voice trembling with emotion, 'All the Lee 
children, except Wilbur, are dead !' Oh, those terrible words ! 
It could not be — surely it could not be ! My heart cried out 
against it. Vida, brave, womanly Vida, caring with a moth- 
ers tenderness for her younger brothers and sisters ; Lois, 
the darhng and joy of all their hearts ; Herbert, and quaint, 
sweet little Ada; and baby Esther, just past her fifth birth- 
day; that they had all gone, in a moment, like the puff of a 
candle, seemed beyond belief. But how to tell the poor 
parents — should we tell them at once, or wait till the state- 
ment was verified?" 

NEWS BROKEN TO MR. LEE. 

We went out. Miss Maxey and Miss Blair, to take the 
good new^s to Mrs. Robinson, wife of the editor of the 'Indian 
Witness,'' while I hastened to my home, behind the church, 
to see if any other news had arrived, only to be disappointed. 
On my return, in the shade behind the church, I met Mr. Lee. 
"Have you any news?" were his first words. ''Yes," I said, 
"terrible landslips ; Eric Anderson, Phoebe and Ruth Wallace 
killed, but no news of my people, and nothing definite about 
the rest in the school." His thought was of his own, and he 
at once asked: "Any news of our children?" The dreaded 
time when the terrible news must be told had come. By 
this time we were out of the shade of the church and under 
the light of the street lamp. I tried to break it gently, and 
answered: "Yes, Brother Lee,, there is some news. The 
house in which your children were is gone." He seemed to 
know the rest, for in an instant his erect and alert form was 
bowed, as if he were a man of eighty years, and wi^:h feeble, 
tottering steps, not uttering a word, he moved off through 
the darkness toward the Deaconess Home. Afterward he 
said to me : "I thought you would fall to the earth when you 
told me the house was gone." 

At this moment Miss Maxey and Miss Blair were coming 
across the street. I left them to follow Mr. Lee to their 



THE STORY OF THE DARjEELING DISASTER. 



133 



home, and I went to tell Miss Widdifielcl, and to get news to 
Miss Craig, Mr. Chew and other members of the mission. I 
win let Miss Blair describe what happened while I was giving 
the information to others : 

''We met Mr. Warne at the church gate and saw Mr. Lee 
just turning away. 

'' 'I have told him the house is gone,' was whispered as 
we came up ; 'I couldn't tell him the rest.' 

''There was no need. The matter had been taken out 
of our hands ; he knew. We overtook him in a moment, and 




MRS. LEE AND CHILD. 



Miss Maxey, thinking to reassure him, made some remark, 
but he walked on without a word. She spoke again; still 
no word did he say. He was like one stunned. Suddenly he 
stopped and said, 'All my children gone !' 



134 LIGHT IN THE EA3T. 

"Then it was we told him all we knew. He said no 
more, but went directly upstairs to the room where sat poor 
• Mrs. Lee by the side of her sleeping baby. There was no need 
lo speak. She saw it written in our faces. Mr. Lee sat down 
:md looked at her, seeming still unable to shake off the spell 
which held him. 

" 'Are the children all right?' she said, and when still no 
word was spoken, she cried out in agony, 'Oh, w^hat is the 
matter? Are they safe? What is the matter?' 

NEWS BROKEN TO MRh^. LEE. 

"'Darling/ he said, 'they are all gone but Wilbur.' And 
then a cry, the cry of a mother's breaking heart, rang through 
the room. 

" 'O my God ! Why didn't He take us all ! Oh, what 
is there left to live for !' " 

After having given the awful information to the other 
missionaries, I hastened to the Deaconess Home, where all 
our mission people soon gathered, and where we together 
spent most of the night, giving what sympathy we could 
and praying with the sorrow-stricken parents. On my arrival 
I found Sister Lee, in her husband's arms, looking as pale as 
death, her forehead cold, her breathing scarcely perceptible, 
her hands rising and falling at her side, and she moaning out, 
"My darling girls, Vida ! Vida ! ! Vida ! ! ! Lois, precious 
Lois ! Darling, cheerful Ada. Esther — Esther, my ba1)y girl 
— Esther — not a* girl left ! Not a girl left ! ! Not a girl left ! ! ! 

my God — not a girl left. What does it mean? Did T love 
them too much? Was I too proud of them? Have T sinned? 
My precious Herbert — no more hugs, no more kisses. Did 
they suffer? Did they all go together? They are happy, 
they are with Jesus. Why were we not all taken with them ? 

1 have lived too much for earth, and too little for heaven." 

The husband and father — devoted husband and affection- 
ate father, brave man — he held and comforted his heart- 
broken wife, as if he had not a sorrow of his own. He would 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 1 35 

say: ''Darling, Jesus gave them to us. Jesus loved them. 
Jesus has taken his own. Don't weep, darling, they are with 
Jesus in heaven and we'll soon be with them/' The rest of 
us looked on ''dumb with silence." Such a providence would 
be mysterious under any circumstances, but to us, as mis- 
sionaries, at first it seemed almost as if God discouraged mis- 
sionaries and was frustrating the purposes of His best and 
most devoted workers. The Lee children had given them- 
selves to mission work. Just about two weeks before I re- 
membered having gone in when Brother and Sister Lee were 
at tiffin, which was just after the arrival of the DarjeeUng mail, 
and Brother Lee, in his most cheerful and happy mood. 




THE LEE CHILDREN. 



sprang up and shook a letter which he had just received from 
Vida, his eldest daughter, and said: "No father ever re- 
ceived a better letter from a better daughter than I have re- 
ceived from Vida." He waved the letter in the air, and said, 
"It's worth a thousand dollars." It was dated September 7th, 
1899, and in it she said : 

RECALLS A PRECIOUS LETTER. 

"My darling papa, we were all talking the other night of 
what we would do for you both, and I am sure Frank (a baby 
nine months old) would have joined if he had been here. 
Wilbur says he won't charge anything for your teeth being 
fixed. Lois will doctor you free. The rest of us, you know, 
ain't so sure of our money as they two are. And Herbert, 



13^ LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

Professor Lee, will make home 'comfee/ I will try hard to 
keep up your work. I am sure God has called me to it, and 
will be with me. Now I have told you what I did not expect 
to. I have told you what is in my heart, I am God's for your 
work, trust me and believe me, your loving and affectionate 
daughter, Vida." 

What a contrast between that scene and the one of which 
I now write! As the night wore on, and we prayed, and 
asked for light on the mystery, I began to think of that won- 
derful hymn of William Cowper's, on the text, "Verily thou 
art a God that hidest thyself." 



> 



■^ 



God moves in a mysterious way 

His wonders to perform; 
He plants his footsteps in the sea, 

And rides upon the storm. 

He treasures up his bright designs, 

Of never-failing skill, 
Deep in unfathomable mines 

And works his sovereign will. 

Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take; 

The clouds ye so much dread 
Are big with mercy, and shall break 

In blessings on your head. 

Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, 
But trust him for his grace; 

Behind a frowning providence 
He hides a smiling face. 

His purposes will ripen fast, 

Unfolding every hour; 
The bud may have a bitter taste, 

But sweet will be the fliower. 

Blind unbelief is sure to err, 
And scan his work in vain; 

God is his own interpreter. 
And he will make it plain. 



THE vSTORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 1 37 

Then we began to understand that m God's infinite wis- 
dom and love He could take those dear children, whom He 
loved so much and who had given themselves to Him, all to 
heaven together, almost as painlessly as falling asleep, and 
use the story of their clear conversions, entire consecration 
and triumph in darkness and storm on that terrible night, as 
it would be read around the world, to soften hard hearts, 
to open pocketbooks, and, through the story of their death, 
have not only six hearts opened and consecrated to his serv- 
ice, but six thousand or more. Thus as the night passed 
away, rays of light and hope began to glimmer through the 
darkness. These rays, we are believing, were from the Reve- 
lation of the Spirit, the "Comforter," who w^as taking of the 
thoughts of Jesus Christ, and showing them unto us ; and it 
is for the purpose of aiding in accomplishing what we believe 
to be the will of God in this otherwise very mysterious provi- 
dence that the story is being told in this form. 

Among the greatest wonders of the world are the 
Himalaya mountains, in which is situate Darjeeling, often 
called the "Children's Paradise,'' which it certainly is to the 
children of a large portion of the Europeans of Bengal, for, 
when in the hot season the temperature on the plains is from 
90 to 100 degrees, in Darjeeling there is an average of 60 
degrees. It is about 450 miles from Calcutta, and at an ele- 
vation of about 7,000 feet above sea level. The first 400 miles 
out from Calcutta the train runs through the densely popu- 
lated rice districts of Bengal, where sometimes there are nine 
hundred people living to the square mile, and during the last 
fifty miles there is an ascent of about one inch in every 
twenty-nine and at some places one in every twenty-four. 
The narrow-gauge light engines and small cars used on the 
road which ascends the mountain has given rise to the name 
"Toy Railway.'' 

AN EXHILARATING EXPERIENCE. 

A ride up the mountains on this railway, with its spiral 
slopes, sudden reverses and sharp curves, passing places ap- 



138 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

propriately called "Sensation Point" and "Agony Point," as 
one is hurried up through forests, tea plantations, cloud and 
sunshine, with a change of mountain view at every turn, until 
he is higher than the very clouds and in full view of the 
"eternal snows," is considered by tourists to be one of the 
most delightful, exhilarating and inspiring experiences known 
in a journey around the world. Darjeeling has been consid- 
ered one of the safest resorts in the Himalaya mountains ; 
there has not been a serious landslip in the memory of the 
oldest resident. "Arcadia," "Ida Villa" and "Mall Villa," 
the very houses in which the children suffered, have, with- 
out the slightest sign or suspicion of danger, been occupied 
every season for over thirty years ; but an unusual rainfall 
began on Saturday, September 23d, and did not cease till 4 
a. rn. on Monday the 25th. Between these hours 24.70 inches 
of rain fell. The heaviest storm was between 4 p. m. Sunday, 
the 24th, and 4 a. m. Monday, the 25th, during which twelve 
hours fourteen inches of rain fell ; but its severest fury was at- 
tained, and the greatest landslips occurred, between midnight 
and 2. a. m. Monday, when it would seem safe to assume 
that the rain was falling at about the rate of two inches per 
hour. Not only did the storm wash down the sides of the 
mountains in Darjeeling, but for many miles round the land- 
slips were terrible. 

On Monday, September 25th, before the news of the 
disaster at Darjeeling had reached Calcutta, Miss Fanny 
Perkins, a missionary from Than Daung, Burma, had left 
Calcutta for Darjeeling, taking with her a special parcel from 
Mrs. Lee for each of her children, prepared with great care 
by the mother, not knowing the children were already in 
heaven. Miss Perkins found two breaks in the road before 
reaching Kurseong, one necessitating a walk of a mile and a 
half, the other two miles. She reached Kurseong at 2 o'clock, 
Tuesday, the 26th, and as she was one of the first party of 
Europeans who went over the road, I will let her tell her own 
story of bravery and endurance : 



THE STORY OF THE JJARJEELJNG DISASTER. 139 

MISS FANNY PERKINS PROCEEDS OVER WASHOUTS. 

''The train did not go any farther and I knew nothing of 
broken telegraph connections and had decided to send Miss 
Stahl word that I had tried to visit her, but could get no fur- 
ther, and I engaged a seat in the next train returning. I 
was standing watching four gentlemen who were preparing 
to walk tlirough. One of them went to a shop across the 
street and soon returned and said to the others, That's terri- 
ble news from Darjeeling. The Rev. Air. Lee and family have 
been swept down the mountain side and are lost.' I went out 
and said, 'That's a mistake as far as Mr. and Mrs. Lee are 
concerned ; they are in Calcutta, but their children are living 
in Darjeeling. Are you sure it's true about the loss of the 
family?' 'Well, it's Mall Villa No. 2. Do you know their 
house?' I went to the box and there found the same name 
and number. The thouglit of returning to Mrs. Lee when so 
near and perhaps able to be of some service seemed impossi- 
ble, and I asked the gentlemen to permit me to go through 
with them. They looked a little doubtful, and I assured them 
I would cause them no delay, as I was fully equal to the w^alk, 
and they consented. I had my breakfast at 11 o'clock, but 
there was no time to get any food to take with me, as the 
others w^ere ready to go, and it was late. Mr. Pascal secured 
me a coolie for my box and bundle and we started off — 
I\Iessrs. Pascal, P)urke, Pymm, Macdonald and myself. We 
had seven or eight coolies with us, one of whom had been 
over the road from Sonada that day. We left Kurseong at 
4 p. m. The first washout was close to the town. They told 
us that there was a footpath, but we would find it very hard 
to get through, as there was a very bad washout in the fortieth 
mile (the miles are numbered from Siliguri). We found sev- 
eral bad places before we reached Toong, but the ease with 
which we crossed them encouraged us to think that we would 
not find it impassable. We rested at the Toong station five 
minutes, then hastened on in order to pass the bad washout 
before dark. We reached what we supposed answered the 



H^ LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

description, where the railway irons and ties hung Hke a sus- 
pension bridge over a space two hundred feet long. It was at 
a place where the road bent in, and from a point several hun- 
dred feet above there had been a great sweep of rocks, carry- 
ing away the railway bed. In the middle of the slip was a 
torrent of water. The only sign of a footpath was a bridge 
made of small tree trunks thrown across the torrent. Climb- 
ing over the loose rocks on the steep mountain side, we made 
for the bridge, which was about a foot wide. We crossed the 
break successfully and congratulated ourselves that we had 
been wise in passing it before dark. Daylight faded, the 
stars came out, and we found ourselves at the edge of a wash- 
out as large as the other and much worse, because the rocks 

CROSSES IN THE DARKNESS OVER ROCKS AND MUD ON 
HANDS AND FEET. 

were mixed with soft earth and water. We had no light save 
matches. Mr. Macdonald was ahead, then a coolie, Mr. Pas- 
cal and myself behind the others. The coolie called back 
that the "miss sahiba" could not come, and as we neared the 
torrent Mr. Pascal drew back, saying, Tt's too bad, Miss 
Perkins; we can't go.' I heard Mr. Macdonald's voice across 
the torrent, and as the coolie reached down his hand I took 
it and went up and crossed the temporary bridge on my 
hands and feet. The rest came over soon, and we made our 
way over fallen trees and rocks, through mud and water. 
Ofttimes when I songht a safe footing, my walking stick 
would sink to my hand in the soft mud. It was an awful 
place. But we came out on the railway again and found our- 
selves near a native hut. We aroused the inmates and pur- 
chased an old lantern (which did service for two miles or 
more) and some mustard oil. I had two towels in my hand- 
bag, one of which I tore and made torches, which gave us 
light. We found that instead of one washout there were 
many after the fortieth mile. Indeed, it was washout or wash- 
in most of the way to Ghoom. We had to walk in many 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. I4I 

places on a wet parapet, which on the top was only about a 
foot wide. A misstep might land a peison hundreds of feet 
below. But our feet did not slip and we reached Sonada soon 
after nine o'clock. Here we rested for half an hour and the 
native postmaster made tea for us. We had some lunch with 
us and the hot tea refreshed us. We here secured four bot- 
tles of oil and my other towel was torn to serve as a torch. 
''We had nine miles before us, and we found the road about 
the same as that over which we had passed. At Ghoom we 
rested for five minutes and then pushed on. The moon had 
risen in her fullness,, and the walk up over Jalapahar was 
delightful. From Kurseong to Ghoom there was the con- 
stant roar of falling water, but from here there was silence, 
because our path for a distance of five miles took us away 
from the railway track, as we found its bed in the mountain 
side entirely swept away. We were compelled to climb a high 
mountain spur, which carried us above Darjeeling. As we 
came down over the hill the challenge of the sentinel rang 
out in the stillness. We passed on and came to where we 
could see Darjeeling nestling in the mountain side. It was a 
beautiful sight ! Deathlike stillness reigned. I inquired of a 
policeman for "Arcadia" and was told that the school had 
moved out. The man said he knew the house and would take 
me to it. Bidding the others good-night, I went on my way. 
It was just three o'clock when we reached Darjeeling, but it 
was four before I found the house where Miss Stalil, princi- 
pal of Arcadia, was staying. 

RECEIVED BY THE SCOTCH ZENANA MISSION. 

'The Arcadia Girls' School had been received by the 
Scotch Zenana Mission Ladies, and Miss Reid opened her 
door for me that morning and gave me a most cordial wel- 
come. We were the first Europeans who had passed over 
the road, and our arrival was an omen of good. Muddy and 
wet, I did not present a very pleasing picture. Miss Reid 
insisted on my going to bed at once, while she prepared a cup 



^42 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

of hot tea. This early chhota hazri (Httle breakfast) was ex- 
ceedingly refreshing. I was then told to go to sleep, but 
. closed eyes brought pictures of rocks, mud, fallen trees and 
hanging railway lines. At the usual hour of rising I was 
shown into Miss Stahl's room. It is needless to say that she 
was glad to see me, and we had much to say to each other. 
I learned that Wilbur Lee had been found and was still living, 
though his recovery was doubtful." 

BISHOP WARNE, WITH MR. LEE AND WIFE, STARTS FOR 
THE SCENE. 

Just forty-eight hours later than the time Miss Perkins 
left Calcutta, another party left for Darjeeling, composed of 
the Rev. D. II. and Mrs. Lee, "baby Frank," J. W. Pringle 
(father of sweet Violet, who entered into rest from Ida Villa 
on that terrible night), and the writer. In the journey up to 
Kurseong there was nothing unusual, except the surprise at 
our going so soon after the disaster, and the sorrow that 
overshadowed us. In a conversation overheard between Mrs. 
Lee and Mr. Pringle, it was mutually decided that God had 
some very special blessing for each of them, or He would not 
have so afflicted, and both agreed that they would seek until 
they found the purposed blessing. 

At Kurseong we procured ponies, but only rode five 
miles, and then reluctantly let them return, because we came 
to a break in which over a hundred yards of the railway line 
was gone and over which the ponies could not pass. We 
scrambled up the mountain side on our hands and feet and 
crossed a bridge consisting of two logs, which had been 
thrown across the waterfall, and then picked our way over 
boulders and through slush down again to the railroad. Such 
experiences became common during the next ten miles. Over 
forty places were counted where the railroad was either 
washed away or buried. Then the one counting grew weary, 
but afterward estimated that forty other such places were 
crossed before reaching Ghooms. When we began to walk a 




"BABY FRANK.' 



144 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

novel and interCvSting method was devised for carrying "baby 
Frank." A little coolie girl who carries bundles on her back 
up the mountains was secured, who had an inverted cone- 
shaped basket, which we cushioned with an overcoat, and 
"baby Frank" sat in this basket with his laughing face above 
the brim. Throughout the journey this little man proved him- 
self an excellent traveler, and soothed his parents with his 
smiles and baby talk. At this stage he appeared to the best 
advantage, for, notwithstanding his new surroundings and 
mode of conveyance, he wa^ full of fun, screaming with 
laughter, and kept one of us busy watching that, in his danc- 
ing, baby glee, he did not jump out of his basket. The larg- 
est break on the line was about three hundred yards in a semi- 
circular form, and the iron rails were torn and twisted as if 
they had been made of iron threads. Huge boulders had 
been rolled down ; in fact, the hillside had been completely car- 
ried away, and perhaps more than anywhere else on the line 
w^as the mighty power of God manifested in the devastation 
the storm had wrought, and we keenly felt the littleness and 
utter helplessness of man in the presence of such overwhelm- 
ing destruction. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST ENTERTAINS THE BISHOP'S 

PARTY. 

At Sonada, ten miles from Darjeeling, night overtook 
us, and though we were intensely anxious to proceed, yet 
with Mrs. Lee and the baby in our party, we felt that to gj 
forward in the night was neither wise nor safe, but we had no- 
where to sleep. In this hour of extremity a priest came down 
from one of the Roman Catholic sanitariums situated close by 
and kindly offered us entertainment for the night, which offer 
we gladly and gratefully accepted, and we were most delight- 
fully entertained. On the following morning we rose much 
refreshed, ate a hearty breakfast, and started out on foot, feel- 
ing grateful to the kind-hearted priest. I noted that all 
hearts were touched when it was known that Mrs. Lee and 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. I45 

"baby Frank" were in our party. People vied with each other 
to see who could do the most for them. We had again 
reached a place where the journey could be made on ponies, 
and two ponies were ready to carry Mr. and Mrs. Lee into 
Darjeeling. A basket was specially prepared for ''baby 
Frank" and a known and trusted servant sent to carry the 
precious baby. For this kindness Mrs. Lee is indebted to 
Mrs. Brown. Five miles further on at Ghoom a refreshing 
repast was given us at the home of the Rev. Mr. Frederick- 
son of the Scandinavian Mission. From Ghoom we ceased to 
even follow the railway line, for from there to Darjeeling we 
were told the railroad bed was almost entirely gone. We 
ascended by a hard climb the Jalapahar mountain, and as we 
approached its summit the eternal snows in the golden glow 
of the early morning broke upon our view, and as we looked 
at the range, hundreds of miles in length, it seemed that noth- 
ing more beautiful and majestic could be seen until we see 
the King of Kings in all His glory. Darjeeling was reached in 
a short time, and the party separated; the Rev. D. H. and 
Mrs. Lee to the bedside of their boy, Wilbur; Mr. Pringle 
to some friends, and I to where the Arcadia School was being 
kindly and gratuitously sheltered. 

The death of the four children of the Arcadia Girls' 
School was caused by the falling in of the walls of the room 
in which they were at the time. The building was of stone, 
and a boulder, coming down from the hill above, struck the 
house with such force that the walls collapsed without a mo- 
ment's warning. There were nine ladies sitting in the room 
with the children when the walls fell, nearly all of whom were 
more or less injured. The story of the last day and night will 
be told by those w^ho passed through it. 

MISS STAHL'S ACCOUNT OF THE LAST DAY AND NIGHT 
IN ARCADIA. 

"There are two memories connected with our last Sun- 
day at Arcadia. While the rain was falling in torrents outside 



14^ LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

we had a quiet, lovely day in the school, and no one thought 
of fear. The morning service in the church is at ii o'clock 
and Sunday-school immediately after. When the school bell 
rang at 8 o'clock, as usual, for the study of the Sunday-school 
lesson, seeing that we would probably not be able to go to 
church, I reviewed the lessons of the quarter with the older 
girls. Miss Brittain took the little girls, taught them the 
Golden Text, and read Bible verses to them until 9:30, the 
hour for morning prayers. On Sunday we always spent half 
an hour at prayers, sang several hymns, read the lesson for 
the day, and the little ones recited a psalm in concert. That 
morning they recited the 90th Psalm : 'Lord, thou hast been 
our dwelling-place in all generations.' The prayer closed the 
exercises, and then we had breakfast. After breakfast the 
children played about or looked at picture books, and the 
older ones read for an hour or more. Then all were made 
to He down on their beds and sleep or read, as they chose, 
until dinner time, which was at 2 :3o. The time for the Junior 
Christian Endeavor meeting was five o'clock, and I gave the 
Bible lesson that day, and the Lord gave me the verse, 'Suffer 
little children to come unto me,' as the one to talk about. As 
T remember it now, if I had known that four Httle ones pres- 
ent at that meeting would be taken to heaven before morning 
1 could hardly have said anything more appropriate. The 
Lord gave me the message. I knew it then, but did not know 
why He had given me that particular message. The 
lesson was, first, the sweet story of how the words came to 
be spoken when the mothers brought their children to show 
them to Jesus. The disciples thought it would annoy Him, 
and tried to send them away, but Jesus said, 'Suflfer the lit- 
tle children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of 
such is the kingdom of heaven.' Then He took them in his 
arms and blessed them, which shows Jesus loves little chil- 
dren and loves to have them come to Him. That was the 
substance of the lesson, to which they all listened most at- 
tentively; they then sang the hymn about mothers bringing 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 



H7 



their children to Jesus. Tea was at 6:30, and after that the 
older girls gathered round the piano and we sang hymns, 
while the little ones sat quietly in another room and Hstened 
to a story. At 7 130 they went to bed.'' 




MRS. WARNE. 



MISS STAHL. 



Mrs. Warne, who had gone from Calcutta to spend some 
time in Arcadia, continues the story : 

FOUND THE HOUSE BEING UNDERMINED BY WATER. 

''About 8 o'clock in the evening we heard a peculiar roar, 
which Edith, my only daughter, a child under fourteen years 
of age, said was thunder. I went down to see Miss Stahl and 
asked her if she had heard it, and she said it was the river 
roaring, in a lull in the storm, but I felt that it was a landslip. 
From 9 :30 we sat with Miss Stahl and talked awhile. I then 
asked her if I could come to her room, as I was too nervous to 
sleep. She said, 'Yes, come,' We were just going to do this 
when there was the most awful roar, accompanied by the 
crash of stones on the roof of the room in which I lived, at 



14^ LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

the end of the building. Miss Stahl asked, 'What is it?' I 
answered, 'A sHde, and very near, too.' We then went up to 
see how the girls were in the dormitory, and, finding them all 
quiet, we came back to consult as to what to do next. I said, 
'We are responsible for these girls, and I think we had better 
get them up the hill.' Just then we heard cries and pitiful 
screams from outside, and, on going out, found all the school 
servants who had escaped coming to the house. They said 
their houses had been swept away, one sweeper killed, the 
washerman, the watchman and his whole family covered 
(seven in all) by the debris. Miss Stahl took a lantern from 
the head bearer and went toward that end of the building to 
see what had happened, but before going two-thirds of the 
way she was over her ankles in water and mud, and was told 
she would be swept away if she went on. We now felt that it 
was too much risk to remain in a building being undermined 
by a stream of water. The teachers were awakened ; Miss 
Stahl went up the hill to Ida Villa to see if we could bring 
the children up there. While she was away Edith and I 
wakened the small children sleeping in a dormitory by them- 
selves. We went to their room and soon quietly roused and 
dressed them. None were over nine years of age. Edith 
woke them, as she was a favorite, and could do it without 
alarming them. We soon had them dressed without arousing 
fear, some asking why we woke them so soon. We told them 
we were going up to Ida Villa, as a part of the hill had come 
down on the servants, and we wanted to go higher up. Eric 
Anderson was the last one I helped, and he dressed as if for 
the day, putting his little night suit on his pillow as he would 
have done in the morning. Phoebe Wallace, the school pet, 
laughed at me as I went round fastening a button here or a 
shoestring there that some child could not master. Her ayah 
put on her dress over her night clothes and rolled her up in a 
blanket, leaving an opening through which we kissed her 
happy little face, but she knew nothing of the fear we had for 
her and the other little ones we had under our care. Miss 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 149 

Stahl returned and said we could go. Edith and I went with 
those whom we had dressed, and some of the older girls who 
were also ready. Miss Stahl came later with the others. We 
climbed by the sweeper's path, up the hill, the water coming 
down it as if in a drain and the rain pouring in torrents upon 
us. Mr. and Mrs. Lindeman gave us a kind welcome, beside 
a good fire in a pleasant little drawing-room. We had the 
children take off their shoes and dry their feet, and after a 
time put them on the floor to have a sleep. Miss Stahl an^l 
T went from group to group and talked with the older girls, 
who realized what had happened, and tried, by being calm 
ourselves, to keep them the same. The smaller children 
laughed and played, and one by one fell asleep, with their 
heads under a round table and their feet sticking out, spoke 
fashion. Eric Anderson was full of fun, and as he saw a hole 
in a stocking of a boy next to him, said, 'Mrs. Warne, I have 
found a potato.' As we were thus silting and passing the 
time, without any warning, a slide came on the south and 
west ends of the room, fdling it with the falling stones and 
dust. There was pitch darkness for a time, but when it sub- 
sided we saw the stones still falling, but, to our Joy, the hang- 
ing lamp was burning as if nothing had happened. It seemed 
miraculous that the end of the beam on which the lamp hung 
should be saved and enough roof above it to protect the lamp 
from the rain. This lamp burned till morning. As soon as 
the dust cleared away we saw that all the teachers, except one, 
were wholly or partially covered with the falling debris. Miss 
Stahl and I got five children out by lifting stones off them. 
It is still a marvel to me, when I remember the large stones 
which we rolled off the children, that none of their bones were 
broken and no one seriously injured. This is probably ac 
counted for, partly, by their having so strangely (which now 
seems providential) gone to sleep under the table. The next 
work was to get the teachers out. When we had released all 
we could, there was still covered Muriel Haskew, all but her 
head ; but Violet Pringle, Ruth and Phoebe Wallace, the ayah, 



150 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

Eric Anderson and little Blanche Limpus were entirely 
buried. Finally we could do no more, and Mrs. Lindeman 
came to me and said, 'Oh ! Mrs. Warne ; if someone could get 
out and bring help! My poor husband (an old gentleman) 
has not the strength to do all that is needed.' Edith was 
standing near me, and said, 'Mamma, I think we can get out. 
I knew an old path two years ago when I roomed here.' 

MRS. WARNE TAKES EDITH OUT INTO THE DARK 
STORMY NIGHT ALONE. 

I stood bewildered a moment, and she said again, 'We can 
get out that way, mamma.' I could not refuse to go after this, 
even if it meant the end, so I said, 'We wiU try.' No one can 
ever know what it meant for me to take my dear girl out into 
that dark, stormy night alone. I got her where I could get 
a good, long look at her white, brave face, and gave her what 
I thought might be a good-by kiss, and we started out. We 
could not get out at the end door, as Edith wished, so left by 
a back bathroom door. At our first step we went into water 
to our knees. Then followed an almost perpendicular climb 
on our hands and knees, the water striking us on the chest like 
a river, and the rain falling on us in torrents. This was be- 
tween 12 and I, the time of the fiercest storm. Umbrellas 
and cloaks we had none, as all were covered in the room we 
had left. We were dressed as we had been when helping the 
children. After we got on the first road above there came 
the most dreadful roar of falling hill that we had heard, or else 
we felt it more, being alone. The ground shook beneath our 
feet, and I put my arm around Edith and said, 'Darling, it is 
the end.' She answered, 'No,, it is behind us ; come on, 
mamma.' I followed, and we soon came to where we had to 
cross the slide that had crushed the room in which we had 
been. Edith plunged in, and I followed as fast as my long, 
wet, clinging clothing would let me. I sank to the knees in 
mud, but got through the first slide; had a few feet of solid 
road, then came to another slide. I, fearing to go near the 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 15I 

edge, kept toward the hill, and was soon in mud above the 
knees, which seemed to draw me down, and I thought I was 
in the mouth of a drain, as I could not get out. The earth 
and stones began to come from above, and I expected to be 
covered every minute, so I called to Edith, 'Go on ; I can't get 
out.' I hoped she would be spared to her papa in Calcutta, 
even if I did not get out. She called back, 'If you can't come, 
mamma, I am coming back to you.' I knew she would, and 
gave another desperate struggle, found a little more solid 
footing, and reached her side of the slide. We had a few more 
feet of solid road, and came to the crossing of another slide. 
In this one Edith never left me, but kept hold of my hand, and 
we passed over safely and reached the level road on the top 
of the mountain. We soon found some native police- 
men, and told them our sad story of the children buried, and 
asked them to go down the hill and help dig them out. To 
comply with our request required more bravery than they 
possessed. We had to pass on in the darkness without receiv- 
ing from them any help. We called at other places on our 
w^ay, but were disappointed m getting help. In our dire dis- 
tress we thought. of the Union Chapel Manse, half a mile 
farther on, and without a light we hurried on through the 
blinding rain, wading in water over our ankles, sometimes to 
the knees, sometimes running and then hardly able to walk, 
once climbing over a slide in which was a fallen tree. At last 
we reached the Manse, and were kindly taken in and tenderly 
cared for by Mrs. Campbell White. The Rev. Patrick McKay 
and Prof. Fleming of Lahore immediately left for the scene 
of disaster, and did excellent work." 

This rather full description of the experiences and difficul- 
ties of getting up the hill through that terrible cyclone and 
landslips will reveal what Miss Stahl, the teachers and the 
girls of the school, who came up the mountain side a few 
hours later, passed through in that terrible night. 



152 Light in the east. 

THE RESCUE PARTY SETS OUT. 

At the house that had fallen in on the teachers and pupils, 
Miss Stahl continued, with Mr. Lindeman, working to rescue 
Muriel Haskew, but, finding herself unequal to the task, she 
started out to find a way to take the remaining children to 
safety. Ten children followed her, among them the brother 
and sister of Ruth and Phoebe Wallace, who were under the 
stones. As she was climbing the hill, she saw a light, which 
proved to be Miss Reid guiding the rescue party to Ida Villa, 

• and too much praise cannot be given to her for this brave act. 
The rescue party, on reaching the house, found Mr. Linde- 
man had gathered the frightened girls who had not gone up 
the hill with Miss Stahl, and was having prayer with them in 
one of the uninjured rooms. The first work was to rescue 
Muriel Haskew. Beams had to be cut in three places, with a 
tiny meat saw, and much rubbish removed before she was 
free. She was released after some three hours of waiting, not 
knowing when more hill might come down, hearing all the 
talk of the children and those who were working, and at last 
knowing she was given up till outside help came. After all 
this, when someone said, ''Give her brandy," she said, ''I can't 
take it ; T'm a Band of Hope girl/* Little hope remained that 
those in the far corner could be alive. The rescuers were wet 
and weary, and had about decided to give up for a time, when 
one young man thought he heard a cry, and said, 'Tt's the 
baby. Come, one more trial," and they found Blanche Lim- 
pus, who had been sheltered by a chair and the organ in a 
most wonderful way. Great stones were all around her ; she 
had throwi>one tiny arm over her head as if to shield it from 
the falling walls. When taken up by one of the men, he said 
to her, "God bless you, dear; we are glad to see you." She 

looked into his face and laughed a happy, childish laugh, and 

ran to the other children. 

BODIES OF CHILDREN ARE RECOVERED. 

More help came at daylight, and the bodies of the follow- 
ing four children and a native ayah were recovered: Violet 



. THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 1 53 

Pringle, who was the only daughter of Mr. J. W. Pringle, a 
well-known government servant of Calcutta. She had a slight 
head wound, which the doctor thought gave her a painless 
death, but was not at all disfigured. She was a sweet, quiet 
girl, loved by all. Eric Anderson, son of the Rev. Herbert 
Anderson, secretary of the English Baptist Mission in India, 
a dear, bright, fun-loving boy. Ruth Wahace, a merry maiden 
of nine, one of the sweet singers of the school, full of music to 
her busy finger-tips, and dear baby Phoebe Wallace, the pet 
and darling of the school, whose rosy lips had been kissed 
when awakened a few hours before, but now were cold in 
death. She was found in her faithful ayah's arms, covered 
with her chadar, as if she had tried to shield her darling from 
the stones. These two were the children of Dr. James R. Wal- 
lace, a widely-known physician in Calcutta. The bodies of 
these dear children were taken to the Union Chapel, where 
kind hands performed the last robing in earthly white, till they 
arise clothed in Christ's robes. Dear Lois Lee, whose body 
was found below Mall Villa, and whose story will be told in 
another chapter of the book, soon rested in Union Chapel be- 
side the others. At one side was placed the faithful ayah who 
had cared for Baby Wallace. 

THE BANKS OF FLOWERS AND THE FUNERAL. 

On the day of the funeral many friends sent to the church 
baskets of flowers, wreaths and crosses of roses, lihes, chry- 
santhemums, ferns, and dainty creepers. These were sent by 
all who had a flower left after the storm. They came from 
the tiny garden of some quiet cottage on the hillside as well 
as from theMaharani's and Lieutenant-Governor's more beau- 
tiful grounds ; but all alike bore a message of love and sym- 
pathy to the sad hearts of the parents away on the plains, and 
seemed to say, ''These are also our children and in your place 
we pay the last tribute of love." 

Long before the time of service the church was crowded, 
and many had taken care to remove all bright colors from 



154 . LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

their clothing. All sects* were represented, churchmen and 
dissenters meeting on one common platform and joining in 
the service. The walk to the cemetery was an impressive 
one. The highest government officials in Darjeeling, with 
the highest representatives of the Church of England and the 
church of Rome, followed the coffins, which were borne by a 
detachment of soldiers of the Munster Fusiliers, led by the 
military band, and the procession extended half a mile. The 
simple Hill people stood on either side of the road with their 
usually merry faces saddened and quiet — not a murmur as the 
procession passed along. The five bodies were laid side by 
side on the quiet hillside in sight of the eternal snow in the 
beautiful "God's Acre," to rest till Christ shall call His own 
(for they were His), as their schoolmates sang, ''Safe in the 
Arms of Jesus," and the archdeacon read the beautiful words, 
"I am the resurrection and the life." The Master's call had 
again been given to mothers on earth : "Suiifer little children 
to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven." 

MRS. LEE RELATES WILBUR'S STORY OF THAT 
DREADFUL NIGHT. 

I asked him about that night,* and he said, "Mamma, let 
me begin at the first and tell you all about it." 

I said, "No, son; you will have plenty of time to tell 
me, so do not tell me all to-day. But I wish so much to 
know if you tried to save yourselves." 

He then told me that they first tried to escape from the 
south side and to get down to Nos. 4 and 5 (the nearest 
houses), but they came to a flood of mud and water rushing 
down the hillside, as Wilbur said, "like the Ohio River." It 
was impossible for them to cross it. 

They then went out the back way, going up the narrow 
foot path to the road, and started to the house above toward 
the Mall, but they found the road washed away, and nothing 
left on which to tread. 



THE STORY OF THE DARJEELING DISASTER. 155 

Vida then led them back down toward Lebong, the op- 
posite direction, but they were met by insurmountable piles 
of earth and debris. 

Boulders were rolling down the mountain side, "trees 
were falling and stones flying through the air. The rain 
poured in torrents ; the roar of the cyclone and the pitch 
darkness were enough to terrify the ])ravest heart. 

Vida found she could not keep them together, and said, 
''I am afraid we will get lost from one another, and I prom- 
ised papa I would take care of Esther. Come, we will go 
back to the house, and, if the Lord wishes, He can save us 
together, and, if not, He will take us together." 

So they returned and went upstairs and built a fire and 
began to dry their clothes. They knelt in prayer several 
times asking ( lod to protect them. 

Soon they heard someone knocking on the front door. 
They went down and found a poor native man, all crippled 
and his face bleeding. He told them their house was going 
to fall, but he was so ill and shivering with the cold that the 
children became interested in him instead of themselves. 

Vida took a cloth and wiped the blood from his face. 
They tried to lift him inside, but he fainted away. She then 
took the durry (large rug) from the floor near by and wrapped 
him up in it. Two other native men passed the door, and 
said, "Children, the mountain is falling down, and you had 
better leave." 

Vida took them all back upstairs again to the fire, and, 
while praying, the corner of the room cracked open. 

I found it agitated Wilbur very much to tell me about 
it, so I checked him, but he said, "Mamma, I must tell you 
about Vida. She sprang to her feet, her face just beaming as 
she said, 'Children, the house is coming down, and we will 
soon be in heaven.' " 

"But were you not afraid, Wilbur?" I said. 

"^s^o, mamma; God had taken all the fear away, and we 
were all so happy. We felt just as if we were in the train 



156 LIGHT IN THE EAST. 

coming home to you. . We said to each other, 'Now if papa 
and mamma and Baby Frank were only here, so we could all 
go to heaven together, how nice it would be.' Oh, Vida's 
face ! Mamma, if you only could have seen her ! how beauti- 
ful she looked ! Her face shone like an angel's as she talked 
to us. She then led us into another room, and again we knelt 
about the bed, and we all prayed. Jessuda (our Bengali girl) 
was kneeling with us, and with hands clasped and looking up 
to heaven, she said, ''O merciful God, take us now." These 
were her last words. 

"Then there came a tremendous crash. I sprang to my 
feet with a lamp in my hand, just in time to see the wall come 
in, and I knew nothing more until I awoke in the darkness in 
the mud and water below. It was still raining hard. I could 
see two lights in the distance, and 1 tried to get to the one I 
thought nearest me. I walked a little, and then fell down 
asleep." 

Some kind gentlemen went to him, wading in mud and 
water up to their waists. After a desperate struggle, an old 
gentleman reached him; the boy threw his arms about him, 
so grateful was he to him for coming. They carried him, 
through much difficulty, to the house, where they washed the 
mud away, put on warm clothes and wrapped him in blankets 
and then sent for the doctor. 

I said to him, ''Wilbur, there is one thing I wish you to 
tell me about. You know you could never quite say that you 
had been converted; that you had really been saved from 
your sins. How was it that night with you ?" 

"Oh, mamma !" he said, "I know I have been converted ; 
that Jesus is my Savior; I was not afraid to die. I knew it 
was all right." 

We then prayed. His prayer was, "Oh, Lord, I thank 
thee for not letting me die in the dark, that awful night. 
Bless papa, and mamma, and Baby Frank ; take care of them. 
Bless me and take care of me, for Jesus' sake. Amen." 



INDEX. 



Aborigines of India, The 80 

Aryans, The BO 

Australian Baptists 85 

Baptism, when given 00 

difficulties in the way of 01 

manner of, explained 61 

given when not " converted "... 62 
Bengalis, their intellectual activity. 114 
their own language, modern.. 114 
excel in the use of the English 

language, 114 

Borneo, the extent of territory 121 

its people, head hunters 121 

superstitions of its people 122 

its sparse population . 122 

Dr. liuering confronts a head- 
hunting chief 123 

Brahminism, its appearance 14 

British East India Company 26 

Hurinah 30 

Buddhism, locality of its present 

sway 12 

forced out of India by Hinduism 11 

mistaken views of 11 

intervention of 14 

its change of character 14 

C^Tey Wm., the great leader of 

missions 24 

his efforts to enter India 25 

Caste, its extent 27 

explained 27 

relaxed 27 

and famine 80 

Christianity, its mission 28 

slow progress of. 28 

a door of hope 72 

its wide open door 73-74 

Its widespread Influence illus- 
trated 72 

and street Arabs 110 

Christians, slow to accept the task. 28 

not fairly represented 28 

slow to take up our forms of 

worship 76 

their expenses Increase . 57 

contribute in cowries 69 

Christian worship, contrary to tra- 
ditions 76 

buildings for, feared 107 

Conversion, Hindus to Moham- 
medanism 11 

Mohammedans to Hinduism ... 11 

what is meant by Christian 59 

term little used in New Testa- 
ment 60 



Converts, to Christianity from var- 
ious castes 46 

and the depressed classes 47 

increase in low caste feared 49 

high caste, increase 49 

apostasy of 49 

multiply 59 

divided into classes 62 

and revivals 62 

morality of 63 

and superstitions 68 

their responsibility 63 

their stability 64 - 

neglected, turn out badly 64 

and old idolatrous customs 65 

and the blood 66 

their social standing 67 

take high position 67 

subjected to indignities (>H 

win respect 68 

social advancement illustrated. 68 

their indoctrination difficult 76 

their reading 117 

must be a reading people 117 

Cooking untensils 11 

Corea, Hermit nation 9 

Cowries, the people's monej^ 69 

the value of 69 

Danish missionaries, first 24 

Darjeeling Disaster 129 

Darkness, meaning of the word 14 

Demon worshippers, aborigines... 11 

Demon worship, spread of 14 

Disciples, the true 20 

Dyaks, the head-hunters 121 

and Dr. Luering 122 

and their skulls 128 

the savages in their head-hunt- 
ing 120-121 

Epworth League Ill 

meetings develop latent talent . Ill 
furnishes well equipped workers 111 

East, the, what it includes 7 

sealed 25 

the Dutch in 26 

Evangelists among the English 
speaking people, their slight 
influence 48 

Famine in India 30 

Goucher, Dr. J. F., his relation to 
the school work 



97 



Harris, 
tion 



Bishop, his adminlstra- 



48 



Hindus, their superstitions 11 

their intense attachment 11-27 

become Mohammedans 11 

Hell, a series of transmigrations. . . 15 

Houses, of the people 10 

what mode of 10-11 

sacred privacy of. 75 

without furniture 75 

I dols as symbols 10 

Idol worship 14-10 

Idolatry a blight 10 

and mental darl?ness 17 

Immorality, no apprehension of. . . 10 

Inquirer, what is he 70 

in great numbers 71 

suffers persecution 71 

India, her arts 10 

dwellings 10 

extent 10 

her great influence 

her languages 10 

life of her people 10 

population 10 

military forces 42 

manufacturies 42 

commercial activity 42 

property of her people 57 

famine in BO 

poverty illustrated 09 

religions of 11 

railways in 42 

J ava and Hindu temples 9 

population of. 12 

Jesuits 25 

meddlers in politics 20 



Kai'ens, work amongst. 



80 



Lee family 129 

Light, the, what is it 19 

walking in 21 

natives of India need it 21 

what is meant by the breaking 

of 22 

Lilivati Singh, history of 100 

IVI alay , his language 110 

Mohammedan in faith 115 

Malay Peninsula, colonized by 

Chinese 12 

Malaysia, mission to 118 

first Methodist missionary to. 
Dr. Oldham 119 

Marriage, (early) of girls not feared 80 

Mazhabi Sikhs, their origin 80 

their character 80 

Missionary, his task 21 

first Methodist, to India, Dr. 

Butler 81 

goes out from centers 80 

agencies still wanting 118 

Methodist Episcopal Mission 88 

its territory at start 88 

population of its territory 84 

its first missionary 81 

its first year's life 84 

its first convert 84 

and the low castes 80 

its first chapel 35-80 



its territory increased 42 

its English work 48 

its immense area 44 

gravitates to depressed masses. 48 
first missionary bishop elected. 48 
in the Nerbudda valley 57 

Ministers, the various grades of 102 

extending the ording,tion of. 102 

their thorough test 102 

ordained unto responsible posi- 
tions 108 

of the people 108 

their wives due suitable educa- 
tion 104 

Mohammedans become Hindus 11 

bring little light 14 

invade India 14 

repeat prayers 15 

Mutiny of Indian Sepoys 81 

a new era in the history of India 81 

Opposition, political, to Christ 20 

of East India Company 20 

from caste 27 

of ignorance 28 

Parker, Bishop E. W 49-^30 

history of 124 

Mrs 50 

Pastor-teacher, term explained. 58-54 

the need of. 52 

his deficiencies and duties. : 54 

his relation to the chiu'ch gov- 
ernment 55 

successes of the 55 

his salary and good fortune 50-58 

his diet and expenses 57 

manner of life 57 

a great num her needed 77 

People, civilized 10 

their houses 10 

their awakening 17 

their caste 27 

their ignorance 28 

living 10-87-57 

opposition 27 

pay of the 57 

lack of inventiveness 17 

generally inspired with hope ... 72 

mud-wall villages 75 

their love of privacy 70 

their worship 70 

traditions and usages to be con- 
sidered 70 

speaking the Hindustani 114 

speaking the Bengali 114 

Philippines 17: Part 1 1 which see 101 

Prayer,unknown to people of India 15 
a Christian exercise 15 

Press the, importance of 118 

in Lucknow begun by Rev. J. 

W.Waugh,D. D , 118 

Rev. Thomas Craven enlarges it 118 
limited in Lucknow to the Hin- 
dustani language 118 

in Calcutta 114 

established in Madras by Dr. 

Rudisill 114 

the heroic effort of Rev. W. G. 

Shellabear 115 

one is commenced in Bombay. . . 115 



Religion, to change one's, discred- 
itable 27 

Roman Catholic 17 

not active 24 

intolerant 25 

Rowe, Miss, her itinerations (a 

sample) 77 

Schools taught by pastor-teachers. 54 

hope for their aid 69 

for Hindus and Mohammedans. 94 

English, popular 94 

of high-grade maintained 94 

European and Eurasian 95-98 

boarding, age of the candidate.. 96 

influence of boarding 97 

and the village head man's let- 
ter.... 97-98 

cost of support in boarding 98 

of various grades , 99 

theological for Hindustanis 104 

for preachers' wives 104 

expense of attending theological 104 

Sunday schools, only nominal ex- 
isting 107 

difficulty in the way of 107 

for girls unexpected 107 

taken to children 107-108 



first success by Rev. Thomas 

Craven 108 

singing wins 108 

manner of conducting 108 

sunrise 110 

attendance in 110 

Song in worship in Sunday school 110 

a great evangelizer Ill 

Sooboonagam Ammal, her 
history 120 

Taylor, Bishop, his great work 42, 43, 106 

Thibet 9 

Thoburn, Bishop, his first appoint- 
ment 86 

eft'ect of his Plains appoint- 
ment 37 

sees slow but wonderful devel- 
opments 37 

his surprise at Joa 38 

his greater surprise at Bashta. . . 39 

his eventful hour 40 

exploiting western side of the 

Ganges 49 

and Mr. Moody 52 

sends authority to enlist one 

hundred preachers 52 

Warne, Bishop F. W., history of. .. . 12